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Abstracts for Theses and Syntheses

Sharon B. Abraham
A multicultural moral education: A history and companion curriculum unit
1997, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
In this curriculum project I offer current theories of moral and multicultural education. I begin with a brief review of the themes of moral reasoning and multicultural education as a framework. I offer twenty lessons using resources for moral education and multicultural education to achieve ends of more clear and precise thinking, oral, and written expression.
subject codes .DIV.MOR

Jeanne Abrons
Accessing the Creative Process
1992, May
Directed by Patricia D. Davidson
How many times have we said that we're not creative? What do we mean by "not creative?"
This paper looks at the creative process as an innate and ongoing process which exists in each of us, with or without our being aware of it. We call on this process daily without knowing that we are participating in a creative process. We use creative processes for avoiding engagement in the creative process. We use creative processes for avoiding situations which might involve our perceived noncreativity. Because we are unaware of our participation, we assume that our creative processes do not exist. These issues are discussed in Chapter I. Chapter II looks at how we regard our own previous panoramas of the creative process1 our perceptions of our own and other persons' creative processes, Einsteilung as one way by which we look into these views beyond the time when they might be inapplicable, and the possible use of reperception as an unbinding of the past and a new viewing of the present for considering creative processes in ourselves and others. As an overview of the creative process, Chapter III is a literature search which helps us understand why creative processes are so difficult to recognize and describe. We learn that no two writers view creative processes in the same way, that creative processes have many facets and exist on numerous planes, that we cannot return to a specific point in a creative process and describe it exactly, and that creative processes are basically inexplicable because we lack a specific creative process vocabulary for an explanation.
One commonality emerges if we look at creative processes from a wide overview: creative processes are basically processes of reperception. If we are to view ourselves as creative then we need to look at ourselves anew, to reperceive ourselves as being creative Having decided to view ourselves as being creative, we will be more able to access our innate creative process and build on it to enhance our lives.
subject codes .THR

Nancy Adams
Critical Thinking and Cedaw: Women's Rights as Human Rights
1997, June
Directed by John R. Murray
"The sacred rights of mankind are not to be rummaged for, among old parchments, or musty records. They are written, as with a sun beam in the whole volume of human nature, by the divinity itself; and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power. " Alexander Hamilton, 1775
This thesis is designed as an exercise in critical thinking which attempts to trace the little-known and vaguely understood international effort to address women's rights as human rights. Specifically, it is intended to introduce and actively engage the reader in the application of critical thinking processes through an analysis of the history and status of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, or CEDAW. Given the potential significance of CEDAW for the United States, it is ironic that this human rights treaty is not commonplace in discussions regarding women's rights.
Many associate the women's rights movement with efforts during the 1970s to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment, or ERA. Some may recall that the ERA was penned in 1921 after the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified, or simply the efforts to secure voting rights for women. Few, however, associate the women's movement with international efforts to codify such rights into law through treaties such as CEDAW.
CEDAW emerged as a product of the three World Conferences for Women that comprised the "Decade for Women" from 1975 through 1985. In 1995, a Fourth World Conference for Women followed. Of all of the documents produced, however, CEDAW stand alone as a legally binding treaty which, under Article II, section 2 of the Constitution, has the potential to become "...the supreme Law of the Land."
CEDAW serves as a contextual framework for the introducing the processes of, and understanding the need for, critical thinking. The central hypothesis of the studies is that critical thinking enables the public to determine if information is accurate, reliable, relevant and sufficient to support of refute a given option. Correlated with the fundamental premise that a democracy requires a well informed citizenry, is that information must be accessible and citizen need to think critically. Upon these premises rests the hope that the resultant standards will be applied in the adjudication of the important social issues.
This thesis asserts that issues of substance can easily be obscured and even discarded when selective emphasis is placed on secondary issues. Analyses of CEDAW are made with respect to medial presentation, US Senate proceedings, and provocative topics, which served to prevent the public from being well-informed. The results of these analyses reveal an astounding degree of misinformation (in the form of omission, Bias, digression, fragmentation, contradiction, and general confusion) that continues to obscure CEDAW from public consideration and debate. Although, through an in-depth critical analysis the status of this treaty may be tragically unclear, the flaws in the treatment of human rights issues, a well as path of correction, are exposed for public consideration.
In sum, critical thinking processes are viewed as necessary to protect the public's perception of the issues. Absent critical thinking, the public may fall prey of misinformation. Through its use, it is hoped that a higher level of humanity, understanding, and truth will emerge within the process and as the product of the sound and careful reasoning.
subject codes .GEN

Deborah Adkins
Critical Thinking in Reading: A Whole Language Approach
1990, December
Directed by Patricia A. Cordeiro
The importance of good instruction in reading education has long been recognized. What constitutes good instruction and what materials should be used have been the focus of much debate, however, over the years. Two relatively new movements in education have recently added fuel to that debate, namely the movements in critical thinking and whole language.
The fundamental purpose of the thinking skills movement is the development of higher level thinking in students. In the area of reading this means that students should be challenged by questions and problems in literature which cause them to go beyond a literal understanding. They should be taught to interpret and evaluate all types of literature.
To facilitate critical thinking, advocates for the movement suggest that educators provide opportunities for students to problem solve in pairs or small groups. They encourage a non-judgmental classroom atmosphere which allows students freedom of thought. Some educators utilize a list of relevant thinking skills and teach thinking strategies and methods directly using these skills as a backdrop.
The whole language movement focuses on the reading of whole, non-abridged literature and an integration of all the language arts: reading, writing, spelling, speaking and listening. It emphasizes reading for meaning and provides strategies which can enhance under-standing. It also focuses on getting the individual student to see the importance and pleasure of reading.
This thesis provides a description of the critical thinking and whole language movements, with emphasis on how each has contributed to reading instruction. The writer discusses the overlap between the two movements, noting many similarities in purpose and methodology.
The writer discusses the overlap between the two movements. noting many similarities in purpose and methodology. The conclusion is that the movements are fundamentally compatible, and therefore educators should use concepts and practices from both movements to form their own foundation for reading instruction. A sample lesson is provided in the appendix.
subject codes .WRL.ELE

Annmarie Adreani
Critical Thinking in Social Studies: A Model of Infused Lessons for the Intermediate Grades
1990, December
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
A main goal of any Social Studies curriculum is to prepare students for effective and responsible citizenship. What is taught and how it is taught must go beyond the recall of facts, if educators are to influence students political decisions and geographic choices in life.
Although the need to develop effective thinkers has long been recognized as a fundamental mandate of education, national assessments continue to indicate that many students lack thinking and problem-solving abilities. Proficiency in thinking involves being able to execute various mental operations, knowing when to employ these operations, and having a willingness to use them when appropriate to do so. Students must be able to determine the credibility of a vast amount of information conveyed to them through a variety of sources and situations.
This thesis demonstrates how the direct instruction of specific critical thinking skills may be infused into the Social Studies curriculum. Five lessons about the Lowell Massachusetts textile mills during the l800s have been developed for fifth grade students. Each lesson specifies the lesson topic, thinking skill focus, objectives, materials, time required, motivation, type of strategy used, and an activity sequence delineating cognition, metacognition, and transfer of the skill. The lessons are designed to teach specific thinking skills: determination of the accuracy of information, the reliability of sources, casual explanation, prediction, and problem-solving. These skills are viewed as having importance for improving thinking across curricula and within the framework of daily life.
subject codes .MSE

Edwin Aguiar
Integrating critical and creative thinking into cartoon animation for preschool children
1997, December
Directed by John Murray
Introducing critical and creative thinking to preschoolers evolved because I found that people usually did not take this notion seriously. Most information focused on older children and research devoted very little effort on them. Preschoolers were a forgotten group. I think they represent a group that could develop and benefit from these ideas without any hesitancy. Nevertheless, how could we develop and mold their intellectual abilities while molding their personalities.
Early exposure to critical and creative thinking beliefs helps perfect the notions of listening, play, paying attention and other activities. I reflect on fetal development, sensory experiences, vocal and verbal expressions, and any noteworthy or extraordinary acts of accomplishments. Setting forth theoretical applications, their objectives, and their correlations to choices, play and the effects they have on child development set the framework on developing critical and creative thinkers. Finding meaning, the reasons for finding meaning, and the methods used in understanding what words mean will be one way to guide them through a thought process. The use of a child's personal experience will provide the mechanism for developing these notions into cartoon animations.
This notion to integrate critical and creative thinking ideas into cartoon animations will have early life influences. They learn to find skills and strategies through decision making opportunities. It helps provide a basis for early academic awareness, exposure to alternative perspectives, encouraging experimentation while inspiring confidence.
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Maura Albert
Promotion of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills through the Teaching of Poetry
1985, May
Directed by Jane R. Martin
This curriculum project has developed gradually over the past fourteen years during which time I have been teaching in the public elementary schools. I have always loved poetry; therefore it seemed natural to make the reading of poetry a standard part of my curriculum even in my first years of teaching. As the years went by and my own increasing enjoyment in reading poetry was coupled with and encouraged by the positive reactions of the children I taught, it seemed only natural not only to read more poetry in the classroom, but, also, to begin to do some exploration of some poems in terms of asking questions about them - both factual and speculative. I began to collect poetry books and to read poetry to my pupils every day.
subject codes .WRL

Leor Alcalay
Learning How To Teach How to Learn English As A Second Language: Reflections from Experience, Praxis, and Theory (Vol 1,2)
1996, December
Directed by Arthur Millman
This thesis explores the development of professional expertise in teaching ESL. Such expertise incorporates the methodological instructional knowledge, intercultural awareness, and multilingual competence essential to meeting highly diversified learning needs in US classrooms, facilitating globalization of domestic business interests, and enabling the integration of immigrants into American society. I encourage a view of ESL teachers as craftspersons and intellectuals who integrate a reflective approach toward personal experience and a comprehensive awareness of relevant intellectual constructs into a dialectical interaction with theory and practice.
The proverb "to teach is to learn twice" suggests both the challenge and potential dignity of learning a well-honed pedagogical craft. An appreciation of the philosophical context of human language, an understanding of the historical evolution of constructs about language, teaching, and learning attained through research in primary sources, and implementation of pedagogical precepts emerging from classroom practice provide crucial impetus o the growth of the ESL teacher's craft.
The author's "kaleidoscopic, Eclectic, Cognitive, Communicative, and Architectonic" (KECCA) approach synthesizes pedagogical awareness into a future-oriented methodology aimed at meeting the multi-faceted needs of learners and teachers alike. In this approach, learners' innate cognitive capacities are challenged by information drawn from highly varied sources and presented in various interactively communicative modes. Skills are taught autonomously but practiced holistically, building into an interwoven and flexible communicative competence in which learners have long-term confidence.
subject codes .LAN

Deborah Allen
Incorporating Inventive Thinking in the Middle School Life Science Curriculum
1994, May
Directed by Delores B. Gallo
This thesis consists of a series of inventive thinking activities designed to be integrated into a year-long middle school life science curriculum. The term inventive thinking is used to describe the process needed to address an ambiguous or open-ended problem, whereby students are required to identify and seek out the needed givens and goals, plus the appropriate rules and operations for solving the problems or completing the task. The inventive process combines the analytical, evaluative skills and attitudes of critical thinking with the generative, synthetic skills and attitudes of creative thinking with the goal of producing a product. The product may be a model, design, plan or physical object; it must be original to the student; and it must solve the assigned problem.
Drawing upon the literature of critical and creative thinking, inventive thinking, science education, and girls in science, the thesis offers a firm theoretical framework for the inventive thinking projects and for the necessity of embedding them into the year-long curriculum and into the methods of teaching used on a daily basis. Furthermore, the curriculum into which the inventive thinking activities are integrated is included. Nine inventive thinking projects are presented and discussed within these frameworks. Three of them are described in detail, with teaching strategies and evaluative processes delineated to serve as an example upon which other teachers can build their own work.
Selected writings from students' journals, reports, and project presentations demonstrate continual development and successful use of critical and creative thinking skills, point out areas of content mastery, and evidence the presence of relevant traits and attitudes for excellent science education. An especially rewarding feature of this inventive thinking approach, which has now been in use for three years, has been the help it has provided for girls to regain self-esteem, to enjoy scientific thinking, and to stay engaged in science. Teachers are encouraged and aided in this thesis to use inventive thinking projects as a vital part of their middle school science curricula.
subject codes .MSE

Patricia Allen
Critical Thinking and The Community College
1997, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
During the past fifteen years, colleges have been challenged to reform their curricula to ensure that they will graduate individuals who can think critically. This study explores the response that post-secondary institutions have made to this challenge and recommends a critical thinking paradigm "more deeply rooted in the social and moral requirements of thinking in a complex world." (Weinstein 1995,1)
This study presents an overview of the conceptual, structural and political
responses of the academic community to this challenge. It focuses principally on the conceptual responses because these provide the theoretical underpinnings for both the structural and political responses of the critical thinking movement: the pedagogical organization and
practices; the competing political agendas; and, the popular understanding of the movement.
Since it is theoretically possible to train people for critical thinking in very narrow domains and practical tasks, just as it is for very broad domains and theoretical tasks, we therefore have to ask ourselves what kind of critical thinking are we interested in developing? For whom and for what? (McPeck 1994, 38)
This study examines four curricular approached to the teaching of critical thinking, two examples of infusion and two examples of the independent critical thinking course. It considers the recent history of critical thinking, describes the unique critical thinking considerations inherent in the community college, traces the instructor's experience with an independent critical thinking course, and outlines a prescription for further development of critical thinking at the community college.
subject codes .TCE

Alfred Alschuler
Education and the Cognitive Development of Creativity
2000, June
Directed by Gary Spierstein
The importance of creativity in education has been increasingly recognized. Although controversy still exists, many schools are attempting to improve the creative capacity of their students through the curriculum. Current efforts tend to view creativity as a stable function which individuals acquire and possess more or less of. This view does not adequately account for the developmental nature of individuals. In order to design a creativity curriculum which accounts for the cognitive development of students it is necessary to understand what the elements of creativity are and when they are acquired by individuals as they develop.
I have developed a conceptual framework with seven elements of creativity which is based on many of the established creativity theories. These elements are: initiative, symbolic representation, symbolic play, extended exploration, perspective taking, inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.
When I place these seven elements of creativity within the perspective of Piaget's theory of development, a sense of when they emerge in an individual's development can be obtained. Initiative emerges soon after birth during Piaget's Sensori-motor stage. Symbolic representation, symbolic play and extended exploration all emerge during the Piaget's Pre-operational stage. Perspective taking, inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning emerge during Piaget's Concrete stage of development.
In the second half of the synthesis I show how this theoretical work can inform the design or evaluation of curriculum on the degree to which it enhances creative development. The key features of this application are: lessons should be age appropriate and reinforce the skills that students are just acquiring; in order to facilitate creative development the teaching of different subjects should take into account the process of learning, not just the content. I combine these in an easy to use check list. This list can be used to design curriculum, evaluate existing curriculum or to assess student progress in creative development.
Curriculum should be systematically evaluated to assess the degree to which existing lessons or newly designed ones promote creative development in an age appropriate manner. Using what is known about creativity and cognitive development, in addition to the seven elements presented in this paper, it is possible to create a checklist of basic ingredients individual lessons and entire curricula should have.
This synthesis is intended to provide educators with a straightforward, developmentally sensitive approach to integrating creative development into their teaching. It is my hope that the methods suggested will prove to be useful and effective.
subject codes .THR

Mashail H AlShabeeb
Modifying and Integrating Critical Thinking Into the Traditional Pedagogy of Saudi Girls' Elementary School
1997, June
Directed by John Murray
This study is motivated by the current national problem of poor and inadequate teacher preparation and teaching quality in Saudi elementary schools. This thesis focuses on Saudi girls' elementary schools. To date, not a single scholarly effort has been made in Saudi Arabia to study if teachers facilitate children's thinking skills and to determine why thinking strategies and effective study skills are not encouraged in young elementary school children. The absence of such knowledge is rather depressing, given the overwhelming evidence that children's experiences during the elementary school years play a vital role in the beginning and development of learning and thinking strategies.
It is argued in this study that in order to address the problem resulting from a lack of critical thinking skills, Saudi Arabia must move beyond a traditional evaluation of teachers which is based solely on the lecture method. It is necessary for the Saudi Arabian education system to examine more practical elements of teaching and learning. Extensive changes in teachers preparation are necessary if Saudi elementary schools are to establish a workable and effective model of national teacher preparation and development.
Literature on the study of teaching students how to think effectively and the development of useful teaching strategies has convincingly informed us of how essential these skills are to students' progress. The implications of such research are quite clear.
I)the elementary school years are a crucial time for children to develop and acquire thinking strategies,
2)the elementary classroom context is ideal for the acquisition, development, and exercise of thinking strategies, and
3)instructional success depends, in great part, on a teacher's interaction with students and the students' in interactions with one another.
This study will take a two-pronged approach to addressing the needs listed above. First, it will provide an assessment and critique of Saudi girls' elementary lessons currently in use. Second, it will offer a sample of modified lessons and the development of a suggested questionnaire for the evaluation of elementary teachers.
subject codes .ELE.GEN.INT

Patricia Artis
Developing Student Participatory Skills in an Urban Middle School
1993, May
Directed by John R. Murray
This thesis contains a manual for a student government program designed to teach students of urban middle schools to think critically and creatively about the issues of responsibility and caring. Most existing student government programs have been constructed for high school students, and do not take into consideration the special developmental stages and needs of the middle school student.
This thesis develops a participatory model of middle school student government in which the entire school population participates. When authority within a school is decentralized and students empowered, the stage is set and structure provided for critical and creative thinking to begin.
In this thesis the most recent research on the biological, cognitive, socio-emotional, and political developmental stages as well as the needs of early adolescents are examined. Studies on citizenship, responsibility and caring are also reviewed. Urban middle school education is discussed as well as moral education, participation, and methods for teaching/developing critical and creative thinking and moral reasoning.
This thesis contains a working teacher's manual with procedures and over fifty reproducible activities for those interested in setting up an inclusive student government program. For each group - the student council, the after-school service club, and the student body - four lessons (introductory, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation) are included in the manual. Step-by-step procedures and research theory accompany each lesson.
The results of this highly successful student government program, which was developed over a ten year period of time, are presented through the use of student reflections and surveys of the students, staff, and the faculty advisor.
subject codes .MSE

Joyce Atkinson
The Role of Critical and Creative Thinking in Academic Retention Strategies for College Students
1997, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
The problem of retention of college students who are under prepared for the academic demands of college will be addressed by looking at the skills and needs of "high profile" or high risk students. I will use critical and creative thinking concepts as a framework for defining relevant skills and motivation, and I will present an original model for developing structures for transformational dialogue to occur as well as offer suggestions for how to measure change through observable student actions. In this way, student needs and skill development can be assessed more effectively and authentic learning formats can be woven into the fabric of holistic outreach interventions.
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Yolanda Avidano
First-Generation Students' Pathways To A Baccalaureate
2011, August
Directed by Carol Smith
The pathway to college for most low-income first-generation students can seem impracticable and impossible to achieve. This diverse population has caused much apprehension among educational administrators and practitioners about how to serve these students effectively. As an educational practitioner working with this population I am especially interested in uncovering the "state of affairs" regarding first-generation college students in general, and low income first generation students in particular, and how I might be a catalyst of positive and effective change as I serve them. My synthesis reviews published literature that reveals the "state of affairs" regarding first generation students. I address the questions of: How are first generation and low income students defined in the literature? What kinds of complexities arise in this definition? In what kinds of postsecondary institutions do they typically enroll? What are the individual characteristics of and obstacles faced by these students? In addition, my synthesis explores two contrasting models designed to promote student success in achieving their BA: (a) TRIO Student Support Services, a longstanding federal program that has made great efforts to support low income first-generation students through a variety of support services including creating learning communities within the postsecondary culture as well as providing developmental education and workshops, and (b) the Achieve the Dream initiative, a bold new national effort within community colleges, that has been established to promote a culture of evidence and to refine efforts of obtaining measurable outcomes of student success. I also consider the research on the effectiveness of these programs and their proposed practices to date in enhancing the success of low-income first generation college students. The challenge of this quest will be longstanding, and viewing its unique attributes will allow for many additional reflective interventions. As a student of Critical and Creative Thinking I have drawn on the many tools I learned. The process of defining the best practices will be an ongoing process, which is reflective of what I learned in my problem-based learning course. There is empowerment in the statement, "every problem has a solution." Geared with that knowledge, it is up to the creativity of the individual facing the problem to establish what route of possible resolutions is best suited for him or her. This is the junction at which I aim to be an agency of change, giving students the opportunity to "realize their dreams." by considering how they are currently thinking about how they might use the possible tools that they might have been given to attain their degree.
subject codes .TCE
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Mumtaz Badshah
The Role of Examination Reform as a Catalyst in Directing Education Change in India
1997, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
The paper focuses on exploring the possibilities of using examinations as a
catalyst that can give an impetus to educational change. The current system of education in Maharashtra, India was examined and the current needs and goals were identified. A literature review was conducted of the research on thinking and learning done by Eliot Eisner, Howard Gardner and Lauren Resnick amongst others.
Research in thinking and learning shows that in order to educate students so that they can use information optimally, make informed decisions and solve problems creatively it is extremely important that educational systems commit to the teaching of critical and creative thinking skills. The portfolio method was identified as having the potential to enhance critical and creative thinking skills from amongst several assessment techniques because it is aligned to the principles of learning by doing and learning by reviewing. In the light of the financial and material constraints present in Maharashtra, India, a case was made that the schools in Maharashtra must aspire to re-design some components of the existing examination system.
Three strategies were suggested to re-design the essay type questions of the examination system. First, to identify and list thinking skills in the question, so that the students know which thinking skills are being assessed and what each thinking skill means. Second to extend the essay question to include a section of reflective writing by the student. In this section the students would describe the thinking skills used to solve the problems stated in the question by reflecting and reviewing on their work and progress. The third recommendation is to design questions in the form of 'cases'. A case is a problem embedded into a real situation where the
student engages actively with the problem by role-playing one character in the case and solving the problem from that characters perspective.
Re-designing the existing examination methods to include components that require students to develop and apply thinking skills is the first step to building thinking classrooms where one of the main goals of education is cognitive development.
subject codes .INT

Anibal Baez
Critical Thinking Through Manipulatives: A Staff Development Intervention for Middle Grades
1997, December
Directed by Judith Collison
This thesis proposes a curriculum development project for mathematics education in the middle grades. I intend to provide theory and to contribute practical applications, both intended for future in-service staff development and teacher workshops. The rationale explores the causes and effects of the lack of manipulative materials in current mathematics classrooms.
This exploration results from my interest in designing, constructing and implementing instructional aids, from my experience as staff developer in the Amigos Bilingual Program of Cambridge, and from my graduate studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston. My objective is to review the history of the teaching of thinking skills and how that history relates to the use of instructional aids in mathematics. I will examine this topic from three different perspectives, philosophical, psychological and pedagogical, that have shaped school practices.
The philosophical perspective that I most use in this work is perhaps best exemplified by Lev Vigotsky's cultural evolution theory based on historic materialism. I use in addition, Robert H. Ennis' approach, which proposes that teaching of critical thinking be emphasized as learning how to think and what to know. I refer to developmental psychology researchers like Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner as representatives of the constructivist trend within cognitive
psychology. Both Piaget' s and Bruner' s work have greatly influenced the study of learning, motivation, perception and educational psychology. The inclusion of their ideas is important when considering any initiative of curriculum or staff development that attempts to improve teaching methods and materials. The contribution of these developmentalists to my own understanding of thinking and reasoning processes have greatly influenced my work here.
For the section on pedagogy, my conviction of the need of various sensory modes to represent thinking led my search to Bruner's spiral curriculum and later Lesh' s model for the translation of representational thoughts. From these two models we may develop an instructional method in which the teacher moves deliberately, in gradual steps, from concrete to symbolic modes of thinking.
Some facts, however, give us pause when considering a total manipulative approach. The first is that the learning outcome of a mathematics curriculum is almost totally symbolic, particularly from the middles grades up. We want our students to be able to perform, eventually, at an abstract level with numbers, operation signs, parentheses and equations. Nevertheless, current findings suggest a schism between this symbolic form of mathematics dexterity and the desirable manipulative methods of good mathematics instruction. I believe that manipulative aids provide for both the improvement of teaching practices and, consequently, for better students understanding of the covered concepts. The use of such devices as realia, pictures and games represent a major benchmark in the paradigm shift from transmission of knowledge practices to student-centered practices. Indeed, this shift provides for the various representational modes of thinking: intuitive, concrete, pictorial and abstract. Consequently, with proper activities, these representations will also facilitate growth toward more complex mental modes and operations: generalizations, making connections, problem solving and the like--the modes where critical thinking resides.
subject codes .MSE

Maureen Baines
Critical and Creative Thinking Through Space Exploration
1996, June
Directed by Judith Collison
This thesis presents a thematic approach to the study of space researchers. Active thinkers seek information as well as process exploration by providing learning experiences for students as content chosen by the teacher. This model presents the teacher as a facilitator of the individual student's quest for knowledge. Some of the most important goals of social studies in schools is to educate the students to make informed decisions, to seek the information they need to solve a problem, answer questions, to work together as a team and to promote citizenship. Thus inquiry and meaningful connections to real life are valued over the memorization of a
prescribed curriculum. The curricular approach profiled here teaches fifth grade students research skills by integrating critical and creative thinking with numerous resources including text, the Internet and CD-ROMs.
Central to the work is the value of teaching the students how to think rather than what to think. Research is a proactive seeking of knowledge that is steeped in inquiry. A detailed format for writing a research project on the intermediate elementary school level is included. Research skills are discussed with emphasis on critical and creative thinking.
Creative thinking converges with critical thinking as the students experience the process of writing a report in social studies with special attention given to the simulated shuttle flight at the Christa McAuliffe Space Center in Framingham, Massachusetts and the research experience. A model is included as a visual aid to help students develop their writing
skills through divergent (creative) and convergent (critical) thinking.
subject codes .SCI

Julie Barrett
Managing a Creative Practice
2009, December
Directed by Carol Smith
Myths and assumptions about creativity often lead us to believe that creativity is innate. Researchers find though, that we develop creative skills like any other ability, through opportunity, encouragement and practice. They also believe that most people fail to reach their creative potential, not because of lack of ability, but lack of opportunity. In this paper, I studied how creativity functions (specifically in terms of my own painting practice) and how it can be applied more flexibly. Certain factors, such as access to strong mentors, freedom to experiment, and readily available resources, help potentially exceptional minds find the passion to define challenges, and the confidence to pursue remarkable achievements. Like any professional practitioners, artists learn to identify new problems, and engineer critical solutions when standard solutions fail. The earlier we start on this path, the further ahead we are able to push our work. The creative cycle helps us harness our skills and creative problem solving allows us to discover new ways to achieve. Essentially, breakthroughs are built on baby-steps and I took my first steps back to painting when I joined the CCT program after more than a year of creative stagnation. Conducting this synthesis project allowed me to conclude that the work of each artist contributes to the overall health of the creative hive. Since our general productivity is connected to our environment, our community, and great numbers of active creative creatures working among us, I invite each reader to consider what they might gain from and contribute to our creative ecology.
subject codes .ART
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Joelle Barton
tales of gen x nothing: A synthesis of theory and practice
2003, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
Tales of a gen x nothing is the true story of Generation X as seen through the eyes of thirty-one million adult children of divorce. As children, how do they see the world after daddy packs up and leaves? How do they cope in a society that hates children? As adults, how do they come to terms with their lost childhoods? This book describes the lifetime of chaos that was the result of the divorce revolution.
This book originated as a way to put to rest the misery that defined my childhood and the anger that blemished my twentysomething years; it was all brought to the surface through my work in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program at the University of Massachusetts Boston.
Mine is a synthesis in two parts:
1. tales of a gen x nothing, a creative non-fiction book-in-progress
2. A companion practitioner's narrative that analyzes my creative process from inception to active writing, through writing blocks and creative breakdowns, and finally to a product nearly ready for mainstream publication. In the practitioner's narrative, I strive to draw parallels between my experience as a member of Generation X and the creative process involved in committing that experience to paper. In this narrative, I show that my writing process, my inspiration, and my motivation is distinctly different than those described by writer's of other generations. I show that my writer's blocks were closely related to lingering insecurities from my typical Generation X childhood.
The voice with which I chose to write the practitioner's narrative defies convention, a defiance that is a fundamental attribute of Generation X. This defiance rails against what older generations declares must be. The narrative must be written in a formal manner. The narrative must not contain slang or "offensive language". The narrative must present the topic in a reverent manner. The narrative must bore the reader to death.
There is nothing boring about either section of this Synthesis Project. It is an honest account of a young life thrown into chaos and what it took to make sense of that chaos.
subject codes .WRL

Carol Beal
The Relationship of Empathy to Effective Speaking: Critical and Creative Thinking in the Speech Process
1991, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
Many factors influence the success of a speaker in speaking effectively before an audience. In teaching speech communication to students, I have focused on factors over which the students have some control in preparing and presenting speeches for an audience. Particularly, I have encouraged the development of critical and creative thinking skills and dispositions as the students focus on engaging closely with their topics, in preparing messages for their audiences, and in selecting styles of delivery. This study investigates the influence of activities which elicit empathy in helping students to think in this way. Nineteen high school sophomores were encouraged to think critically and creatively in preparing and presenting seven speeches of increasing challenge to earn speech communication skills and dispositions in a nine week term.
Empathy is defined here as an intrapersonal communication process composed of cognitive and affective components. Student work was measured by an empathy continuum scale created for the complex aspects of the speech preparation process, attending to the degree of empathy I observed in the students for their topics and their audiences.
This study presents a qualitative analysis of the work of six students selected on the basis of their task commitment and speech aptitude as revealed in the first speech task. These case studies are supported with quantitative analyses of data I collected from the students, including student rankings for themselves and their eighteen peers for: empathy for the topic and audience, best speaking in the term, best delivery skills, most improvement in the term, and task commitment.
The written and oral empathy activities facilitated the students' engagement with their topics and audiences even when the students lacked a positive disposition towards the speech domain. Given satisfactory task commitment, the students who emphasized to some degree with their topics and their audiences were positively influenced in the growth of speech skills and dispositions.
subject codes .MOR.MSE

Elisa Beildeck
Reducing Communication Apprehension To Improve Self-Concept: An Adaptable Public Speaking Curriculum For Secondary School
1999, December
Directed by Taylor
Both middle and high school students today are confronted with social and biological changes, which can negatively impact on their self-concept. Many students have, in particular, a low public speaking self-concept causing them to avoid public speaking circumstances or causing them to have high levels of anxiety in speaking situations. Students need positive experiences in secondary school, but unfortunately, many are not taught public speaking until the college level and consequently have a high communication apprehension level. In this paper I cite research that shows that my public speaking course taught at the secondary level designed to decrease communication apprehension will improve students' public speaking self-concept. In turn encouraging students to participate and succeed in more public speaking opportunities, leads to a better overall self-concept.
After presenting research, which shows the causes, consequences and treatments for communication apprehension, and illustrating the inverse relationship between communication apprehension and self-concept, I provide a complete public speaking curriculum for secondary teachers. The curriculum is designed to lower communication apprehension and improve students' public speaking self-concept so that students at the secondary level can have power over their public speaking fears and develop a better overall self-image.
This adaptable public speaking curriculum lowers communication apprehension in five ways. First, the curriculum explains how to create a safe environment with established ground rules. Second, once the environment encourages students to take risks this curriculum prepares speakers to write and deliver their speeches. Samples of monologues, famous speeches and poems are included in the curriculum to give teachers a wide variety of speech material from which to choose. Third, this curriculum teaches students metacognition and ongoing self-assessment so that, students can determine focus areas for work and measure their improvement. Fourth, the curriculum empowers students with the ability to lower their own communication apprehension through various activities such as visualization, drama exercises and systematic desensitization. Last, this effective public speaking curriculum presents several non-intimidating evaluative measures for the teacher and students to use at the end of the project.
This curriculum has been successfully tested in various classrooms. Both teachers and students have reported an apparent reduction of communication apprehension and an improved self-concept.
subject codes .MSE.COM

Marlene Bell
An Exploration of Personal Process as Manifested in Painting
1991, May
Directed by Nina Greenwald
This thesis examines the processes of personal experience and expression which emerge in art. The author believes these processes to be multidimensional, encompassing different elements: significant childhood and later events, the shaping of perception, and the evolution of form and design. Perception is discussed in relation to these factors.
The opening chapter provides an examination of pertinent literature in the field of creativity. The following chapters explore different elements of creative work in comparison to the perspective of prominent individuals who have made a contribution toward an understanding of the creative process. Their insights provide a scaffolding from which to understand how the creative process is represented in personal artistic experience and expression. Where applicable, ethnographic comparisons of perception are cited and discussed.
The thesis also examines the development of one particular painting of the author. This examination begins with the original image seen. It continues to follow the image's evolution through stages of active work to the design and execution of the painting's final product. These examinations of thought and activity link the painting to the original experience and exemplify the activity of painting as visual thinking.
subject codes .CUL.THR

Kathleen Bertrand
Emergent creativity: A case study
1997, May
Directed by Delores Gallo
A recognition and analysis of the complexity involved in trying to understand what creativity is and how the creative process works is the essence of this paper. I chose to record as a case study the creative process involved in developing a children's book based upon the achievements and experiences of three Massachusetts women who participated in the All American Girls Professional Baseball League. The AAGPBL, as it is called, pioneered the effort of the participation of women in organized professional baseball. There is currently a need for books, written for young readers, with young girl athletes as role models. The intent of this project is to create a story that validates the athletic passion, drive, abilities, and love of sport for all girl athletes. The All American Girls Professional Baseball League is an example of a time gone by when the national pastime of baseball became a true experience for all ballplayers regardless of gender.
The evolution of the project as it happened is presented with accompanying analysis. The influence of the critical and creative thinking theorists, Howard E. Gruber, Teresa Amabile, Delores Gallo, Sharon Bailin, Richard Paul, and others are evident and provide structure to the analysis.
This work contains a theoretical framework, an introduction to Mary Pratt, Maddy English and Dottie Green, (three women baseball players under discussion), an overview of the proposed work of adolescent fiction, and an in-depth presentation and discussion of one chapter of the book.
When the project was finished I had not defined creativity but rather chronicled an emergent experience within an evolving creative process.
subject codes.GEN.SPO

Patricia Bertucci
Promoting a healthier life-style by bridging the 'life-times' gap
1997, May
Directed by Delores Gallo
This paper traces the evolutionary transformation of a small town New England native, who was traditionally raised and educated. She went from a conventional Western-medicine trained nurse, and an adherent of Roman Catholicism, to a holistic therapy practitioner. Spiritual healing, visualization, relaxation, hypnosis, and past-life regression are utilized as part of the healing process, on the self-actualized journey to wellness. The paper begins with a selective review of related literature, offering both empirical evidence of the mind/body connection, and proceeds with anecdotal evidence of the medical efficacy of relaxation, visualization, hypnosis, and past-life regression therapy. It ends with an account of three case studies, and statements from the subjects.
subject codes.MED

Shelly Billingsley
Evaluating Different Forms of E-Learning
2003, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
"The Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) program at the University of Massachusetts Boston provides its students with knowledge, tools, experience, and support so they can become constructive, reflective agents of change in education, work, social movements, science, and creative arts." (Critical and Creative Thinking Program 2003) I entered the program as a teacher seeking knowledge on how to better convey learning theories to diverse groups. I also wanted to experience a collaborative atmosphere where I could learn from interacting with peers on how to best promote educational change. Finally, I had a desire to seek insight into the evolution of different forms of learning practices.
This paper chronicles key professional events that have evoked questions in respect to how best to create learning material for different audiences. The nature of these events is described as I explain the transition from teacher to corporate trainer and from formal instructor to e-learning and technical course provider. The framework of this paper takes a look at existing theories that one may consider while deciding what forms of content can be successfully provided through e-learning, includes a hypothesis rationalizing which forms of content might be too abstract for online instruction, and clarifies a simple study that was conducted to begin to evaluate different forms of e-learning.
subject codes.COR.TEC

Kathleen Blanchard
1997, August
Directed by
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Varis Blaus
1997, May
Directed by
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Constance Borab
Freeing the Female Voice: Pedagogical and Methodological Changes in One Teacher's Story
1997, May
Directed by
This paper will trace the stages and causes for my evolving pedagogy and the resulting changes in the content and methodology in the curriculum I teach. Being trained within the bounds of a patriarchal framework and traditional Anglo-American canon, I came to teaching believing that critical thinking and critical writing were the measure of true knowledge.
The first challenge to my initial pedagogy came from the voices of my students who were not as fully engaged in the learning process as I or they wanted them to be. Pointing to my methodology as an inhibitor to learning, the students' feedback called for my respect for subjective and constructed knowledge as well as for my grounding procedural knowledge in a context broader than the limits of the definitions of valid knowing that exalted objectivity and the rigors of traditional academic forms of expression.
The evolution of my methodology, pedagogy and curriculum design have been gradual and continuous. The introduction to Carol Gilligan's In a Different Voice provided the language and development that I had already recognized in my students' voices over the years. Reading this work led to a pedagogical epiphany that my working must be about "freeing the voice" of my students. The methodological and curriculum changes that I have made have risen from my belief that empowering my students and "freeing the voice" are integral and imperative to learning.
subject codes .GEN

James Bousquet
The Critical Thinking Salesperson
1991, September
Directed by
Salespeople have one of the most important assignments in any firm. They are largely responsible for the movement of inventory and the movement of inventory and the generation of revenues. Specialized training should be provided for salespeople if they are to be expected to accomplish these goals. Today, much of what is provided in the area of training is product oriented. Very little is offered to help the salesperson create lasting business relationships, with the buyer, that would result in repeat sales.
What is needed is a new approach to sales training, one that focused on the skills required to create and maintain relationships and to truly understand the needs of the customer. Now longer is it sufficient to provide only basic product training. The new sales training curriculum requires critical an creative thinking skills as an integral component of the skill set provided to the salesperson.
This thesis will outline a curriculum designed to provide integrated sales and critical and creative thinking skills to salespeople. The basic framework will be the sales process, broken down into seven discrete steps. Critical and creative thinking skills will be used to strengthen the sales skills in the student. The student will examine major critical and creative thinking themes such as viewing ideas from different perspectives, identifying biases and stereotypes, problem identification and metacognition as they relate to the seven step selling process.
The central idea of this work is that salespeople once given basic skills training, will be more effective creating lasting professional relationships if they constantly monitor, evaluate and revise their approach to the selling process. This curriculum outlines a course that will provide students with basic sales skills and expose them to the critical and creative thinking skills necessary to make them critically thinking salespeople.
subject codes .COR

Elizabeth Buckley
A Thinking Skills Approach to the Humanities
1993, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Teachers are constantly seeking ways to improve their own teaching and thereby enhance the learning of their students. One method of doing this is to bring critical and creative thinking to the forefront in the curriculum. Specifically, this thesis shows how critical and creative thinking skills can be integrated into a high school curriculum. It focuses primarily on the teaching of Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World, although the book is meant to be a paradigm for other works. The novel is an example of one unit in a high school humanities course that was developed in a suburban high school in the l980s.
This study explains the role that critical and creative thinking played in the development of a course called "Odyssey." It also delineates how integration/infusion emerged as the preferred method of teaching thinking skills. A brief history and overview of the course is presented to emphasize the fact that flexibility is one of Odyssey's chief hallmarks. Definitions for both critical and creative thinking are established, and the work of major theorists in both areas is considered. Those theorists reviewed in this study in the area of critical thinking are Ennis, Beyer, Lipman, Sternberg and Paul. The major influences presented in the field off creative thinking are Guilford, Torrance, Barron, Parnes, Treffinger and Feldhusen, as well as Shallcross, Gallo and Amabile.
The relationship between critical and creative thinking as articulated by Guilford, Parnes, Swartz and Perkins is also explored. The infusion/integration method is considered with references to Perkins, Swartz, Costa and Paul. The importance of metacognition is discussed along with the significance of transference across the curriculum and into real-life situations.
The major thrust of this thesis is the ten lesson plans which take a thinking skills approach to teaching Brave New World. Strategies and techniques such as role-playing, journal writing and brainstorming are delineated to illustrate the integrative mode. The final chapter discussed some of the implications of teaching critical and creative thinking in this manner. Examples of students' reactions are shared. While the theoretical base of this approach is provided by the experts, it is the affirmation of present and former students that attests to its effectiveness
subject codes .MSE.ELE

Kathleen Bullock
Teaching Economics In United States History: One Teacher Shares Some Lessons 2002, August
This paper addresses the value and benefits of teaching economics in U.S. History at the high school level. Some of the challenges it presents such as curriculum style, teacher qualifications, assessment and accountability, pacing, and developing thinking skills for a theory-based course are discussed. I also offer activities with accompanying worksheets and graphic organizers that may assist teachers in meeting these challenges. The activities include tariffs, a run on the bank, monopolies, and recessions as an introduction to basic economic principles that are important in teaching U.S. History. A set of graphic organizers on The Civil War demonstrates how economics relates and integrates with social and political causes. My paper reflects my desire to raise intellectual standards for myself, and gives me the opportunity to share some of my discoveries with colleagues who desire the same.
subject codes.MSE

Margaret Burke
Building a Home for Thinking Transfer
1992, September
Directed by John R. Murray
Thinking skills development is an important educational goal if students are expected to cope with the challenges of today's rapidly changing world. Teachers attempt to build the foundation for thinking by applying innovative programs that introduce and reinforce critical and creative thinking skills. Yet, educational practitioners and experts in the critical thinking field recognize that even those students who demonstrate mature thinking in school frequently fail to transfer thinking skills outside the classroom.
To maximize the possibility for transfer two approaches to thinking skills development were chosen for this thesis. First, methods employed in the classroom included direct instruction in thinking, practice in thinking using multiple experiences with varied contexts in socially interactive environments, and metacognitive instruction. Secondly, outside the classroom, parents and teachers joined in a mutually supportive partnership to extend thinking skills into the home. Parents modeled good thinking and employed high level questioning strategies in a series of project activities designed to foster communication.
The thinking skills project involved twenty-five fourth grade students and their families participating for one full year to develop and transfer critical and creative thinking skills outside the classroom. Project activities employed strategies that elicited recall, application, analysis, and evaluation.
Conclusions were drawn from direct observation and evaluative instruments completed by parents and students both during the process and at the conclusion of the project. A summary of evaluative data indicated that the intervention was effective with the majority of students. Parents' awareness of critical and creative thinking also increased.
The curriculum and evaluation instruments are included in the appendix to serve as a resource for teachers and other practitioners. Primarily designed for elementary classroom teachers, both the content and the style of the curriculum project could easily be adapted by other practitioners working with parents and children.
subject codes .ELE

Mary Burke
First Graders Solving Problems
1997, September
Directed by John R. Murray
First graders become good problem solvers when given the opportunity to practice problem solving skills. It is necessary for such practice to take place in a risk-free environment that treats errors as valuable learning experiences rather than something to always avoid. This thesis integrates academic subject matter, school life interactions, and out of school experiences into the first graders' development of critical thinking skills and strategies necessary for them to become good problem solvers. The thesis explains in several different academic subject areas the implementation of critical and creative thinking pedagogy essential for the development of a sound foundation for first graders to work through many of their own problems.
Portfolio assessment is used as the primary tool to evaluate the growth in both critical and creative thinking and problem solving. This has given the author good evidence that first graders can become good problem solvers when they are given guided practice.
subject codes .ELE

Thomas .M Burns
A Structured Approach to Training and Development Programs for Business and Organizational Leaders
1997, June
Directed by John Murray
This paper addresses and integrates two issues. Its first premise is that training and development programs in most organizations are often poorly planned or randomly implemented, a condition which undermines much of the potential benefit these programs may offer. Secondly, the paper argues that the development and application of critical and creative thinking skills, traditionally applied only in educational settings, can also serve businesses in very important ways.
Towards the integration of these two issues, a six-stage model is presented that can serve to coordinate the process of personnel development in organizations. It is highlighted by the identification and application of a range of cognitive skills. While the model is primarily progressive, suggesting that certain learning should precede other learning, there is also a more holistic or systemic aspect to it, realizing that work at one level must influence and be influenced by work on other levels. These points are expanded upon throughout the paper
After an introductory chapter discusses the background and general goals of the paper, each of the next six chapters discusses in detail one of the stages from the model. Stage 1 is centered on self-development and a greater appreciation of an individual's thinking, learning and behavioral preferences. Stage 2 introduces interpersonal communication issues
associated primarily with dyadic contexts. Then Stage 3 focuses on communication issues in special circumstances, namely those related to matters of diversity as it is understood to include perspectives of race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual preference, and physical disability. Stage 4
deals with ideas associated with group process and team development. Trainings at this Stage 4 level become pivotal and critical as a foundation for the more complex operations common to most organizations. In Stage 5, the contextual focus expands to include organizational departments or divisions. And finally, Stage 6 addresses intervention programs that are concerned with entire organizations. A summary is presented in Chapter 8 and suggestions are made for further study and exploration.
subject codes .COR

Michelle Burpee-Robert
1997, May
Directed by
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Susan Butler
A Teller's Tale: Joining The Circle -- A Discussion of Process in The Writing of a Novel for Young Adults
2002, December
Directed by Peter Taylor
In this thesis, I reflect on the writing of fiction for young adults against the backdrop of autobiography. Context is provided by the accompanying opening chapters of a novel for young adults-The Defectives of Ulibar- and excerpts from a journal written during the writing process. Aspects of the creative engagement-open brainstorming, focusing, rewriting-are anchored in the specific locations-a country road, a cabin in the woods, an indoor study-in which the processes occur.
In the course of this endeavor, I learn that the writing of fiction, and the reflecting on the writing of fiction, are not after all so different. It is only be engaging in the groping, shape-discovering process that I learn what I have to say.
I also discover that not only do my characters move from silence and disconnection toward expression and connection, but that I too, through the writing of fiction, am stepping out of the shadows and joining a circle of my peers.
Lastly, I take note that with this document, I am taking my place in yet another circle: that of sharing reflectors on creative process, fellows in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program. Each of us adding our tile to an ever-evolving mosaic.
subject codes .WRL

Victoria Byerly
Literacy as a Source for Critical Consciousness Thought, Language, and Concept of Self
1988, May
Directed by Wanda Teays
This thesis is a study of the complex interrelation between thought and language and the relevance of social and cultural influences on a mature critical concept of self. This study represents an effort to propose a curriculum for literacy that facilitates the restructuring of consciousness in the adult learner. The intent is to promote transformation of student apperception from that of internalized reactive powerlessness to proactive self-empowerment. It is an emancipatory theory of literacy with a corresponding transformative pedadgogy that promotes the ability to name and define the relationship of self and environment, and one that engages learners to transform their world.
subject codes .THR

Terese Byrne
Verifying the Teaching of Analogies to Fourth Grade Students
1999, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
The proliferation of technology and the information it makes available to all has forced education to realign itself to meet the changing needs of today's students. A shift away from amassing information, toward the development of critical thinking skills, presents teachers with new questions. What skills are appropriate to teach at a given age or level, and how can those skills be developed? This project takes one of those skills, analogies, and investigates the degree of success a teacher might expect in teaching them to fourth grade students.
The project was designed as a data generating study. Fifty-seven fourth grade students from a suburban Boston community participated in the study. There were 28 students in the study group and 29 students in the control group. As there are no commercially available tests that would measure growth in the necessary manner, an instrument was devised for the study. The test contained four subtests at increasing levels of proficiency: recognition, completion, analysis, and generation of analogies. Within each subtest five types of relationships were included: descriptive, comparative, categorical, serial, and causal. All participants were given a pretest and a posttest on designated dates. The study group received 16 instructional sessions of 15-20 minutes each between the pre- and posttests. The results were then compared.
The overall analysis showed significant gains for the study group compared to the control group. The greatest gains were made in the fourth subtest, generating analogies. This is particularly encouraging since it requires the greatest facility with the integrated reasoning process of analogical thinking. The findings of the study support the hypothesis that it is feasible to teach analogical skills to fourth grade students, and they suggest that critical thinking can be successfully included in the curriculum of elementary schools.
subject codes .LRN.ELE

Terri Caffelle
Metacognition in the Elementary Classroom: An Exploration
1992, December
Directed by Carol Smith
Metacognition is a practice which enables students to monitor their thought processes in order to think critically. Research indicates that when students are aware of their thinking they become better thinkers. The purpose of this thesis is to encourage teachers to give more attention to metacognition in the classroom.
A review of the literature on metacognition is given. Next, classroom lessons are outlined which introduce fourth grade students to metacognition in the context of math problem solving. Finally, an initial assessment is given of how students' metacognitive and problem solving abilities have changed as a results of the curriculum.
Before the instruction began, all students were given a math problem solving pretest. A sample of nine students of different ability levels were given a pre-interview to assess their metacognitive abilities. Based on the pre-interview results, I realized that students were able to metacogitate to some degree, but that it needed to be fine-tuned. Students also demonstrated limited success solving the math word problems.
After five weeks of instruction and practice, I gave a post-interview to the same nine students and the math problem solving posttest to all of the students. I measured the students' metacognitive growth and problem solving growth in several ways.
There was evidence of an increase in student metacognitive and problem solving abilities in several areas, but two areas did not show substantial differences. I feel that one limit of the study was the five week time frame. It should have been extended.
A question surfaced: Are student gains in problem solving ability due to metacognition instruction in the curriculum? Or are they caused by the problem solving instruction itself? A correlation analysis showed that improvement in metacognitive awareness was positively correlated with improvement in math problem solving ability.
A future study was proposed to test the causal connection by comparing problem solving and intellectual gains in classrooms which either use or do not use metacognitive instruction.
subject codes .ELE

Gloria Cairns
Critical Thinking in the Workplace
1997, June
Directed by
Richard Paul, a leading figure in the critical thinkng movement, and Robert Reich, Secretary of Labor in the Clinton Administration report that the need for applying critical thinking skills in the workplace is essential, if America is to remain competitive in the global economy. The degree to which employees think insightfully and are able to resolve complex problems will determine how competitive a business remains. In the past two decades, an unprecedented number of American businesses have been bought out, merged with another, or downsozeddownsized.Thisas forced
subject codes .COR

Ralph Calitri
Alternative Concepts of Geology and Time in Secondary Science Education
1984, September
Directed by Carol Smith
This study examines students' concepts of time and geologic processes and probes for alternative conceptions in these areas which would be of relevance for science education.
subject codes .MSE.SCI

Meghan Callaghan
Discovering My Passion as an Ally: Gaining Awareness of the History of The Gay Rights Movement
2012, May
Directed by Jeremy Szteiter
Forty years have passed since the civil rights movements in the 1960s and 70s, and even with significant social and political strides made for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) communities, some parts of life look and feel the same. The negative effects of homophobia still reign large and can be seen in state and national policies and through the harassment and violence towards LGBT youth. As a heterosexual, I want to know the best ways I can support and advocate for LGBT rights, and I wonder if through my privileges as a straight woman, compared to being a homosexual woman, if I am better suited to dispel the terrible myths concerning LGBT lifestyles and history. Two things are certain -- that the history of the LGBT movement follows similar patterns of its brother and sister movements (African- Americans', Women's, Immigrants' Rights) and that a nasty motivation for power allows people to manipulate others into being fearful and hateful towards another group, simply because the other group threatens what they believe to be right and wrong or productive for society. Not surprisingly, one answer to all of this oppression is achieved by calling attention to the everyday lives of gay and lesbian people; allowing the supposedly unknown known. //In learning the history of the LGBT movement, I am empowered in knowing the past challenges and successes. But even before diving into the history, I had to start with myself. I had to reflect on my own biases, assumptions, and attitudes. Reflection was pivotal in opening up to a new perspective. In my development as an ally, I reflected on how a heterosexist society sets out to privilege a very limited view of sexuality and love. Through reflection, I now have a clear sense of the negative impacts of homophobia and the dangers they present to society. // Being an ally is hard. Many times I do feel people's judgment on me for why I care or advocate for an issue that does not pertain to me. But there are things to be done and individual actions that people can take in dismantling homophobia. A personal action I created was a tumblr to highlight and profile LGBT people (living and dead), allies, and organizations. The tumblr is named Just Like Me and U (You) and can be found at: http://justlikemeandu.tumblr.com/ . The goal is to raise awareness that the LGBT community has its own defined history, celebrate those who break the mold of heterosexism, as well as to educate young LGBT youth in understanding their history. All of the names of people that appear in bold throughout this paper can be found at Just Like Me and You (U) with photos and short profiles. The idea for me with my tumblr is to leave enough information to ignite some level of curiosity that would allow the viewer to want to go find out more about the person or organization. subject codes.DIV
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Kristin Capezio
Changing My Perspective on Intelligence
2010, May
Directed by Carol Smith
This paper originates from a deep desire to understand how historic values of intelligence have led to our modern-day conceptions of intelligence. After only five years of teaching, I was drawn to this topic as I felt it was connected to the service I provide my students and the community in a position as a lead teacher, program coordinator and teacher’s aide. The question of the nature of intelligence and aptitude greatly impacts the feedback we offer students, intended for their intellectual growth and academic development. I attempt to distinguish myths from realities about how intelligence evolves and is measured, by exploring the works ranging from those of Alfred Binet and Lewis Terman, who founded intelligence testing, to the Instrumental Enrichment Program of Reuven Feuerstein (FIE), among other, more contemporary analysts and scholars such as Howard Gardner, Daniel Goleman, and Robert Sternberg. I address directly variations in our conceptions of intelligence and their influence on curriculum and teacher practice in the American classroom. My exposure to this topic began in the early part of my graduate career. Through the Critical and Creative Thinking program I have been faced with many challenges, including uprooting old assumptions about what intelligence really is. Inculcated by my family and in school, I believed the IQ test was the absolute measure of whether an individual was smart or not. None of my ideas acknowledged what the true plasticity of the mind was. I had not yet gained an understanding of the necessity for both critical thinking and a creative outlet. My goal in this Synthesis is to speak to fellow teachers, in elementary school and secondary education, to help them consider how outdated conceptions of intelligence still shape our impressions of what processes and knowledge are valuable in our classrooms. In the paper I incorporate alternatives to the mainstream teacher tools through FIE, so teachers can develop professionally and holistically and therein greatly enhance the success of their students. I propose that teachers must first acquire the skills necessary to be able to recognize potential in student work and encourage in them the habits of mind which will develop thoughtful, motivated students.
subject codes .MSE
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Susan Carle
Student Held Misconceptions Regarding Area and Perimeter of Rectangles
1993, December
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Students enter the classroom with individual schemas, based on their experiences and ideas, which influence the reception, interpretation, and recollection of new information. Effective teachers must understand the implications of these existing schemas. As an experienced classroom teacher, the author finds students often manipulate and apply new information well in class, only to forget or alter the material a few weeks later;. When misconceptions are woven into schemas, they interfere with reception of information. This thesis examines specific student-held misconceptions about the area and perimeter of rectangles and the process of their identification and eradication.
Identification of the misconception is the first step in bringing about change. The process of identification begins through the analysis of a pre-test which is designed to highlight specific erroneous ideas that the students hold. :Through this pre-test, the author identifies five misconceptions. For ease of discussion they have been named; Fallacy of Multiples, Increase/Decrease assumption, Conversion Conclusion, Spatial Bias, and Equality Assumptions. Each misconception is defined and explained and the specific pre-test questions used for its identification are included.
There are several learning theories which can aid the teacher n establishing a process of misconception eradication and educational change. The author works within a framework including theoretical components of cognitive psychology, Anderson's theory of memory, and Ennis' definition of critical thinking and taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. The mathematical components of this framework are developed utilizing metacognition, transfer, and recent curriculum and professional development standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
This multi-faceted framework provides the foundation on which to build lessons targeting the eradication of specific misconceptions. Three lesson plans are presented to illustrate the practical implementation of the theories in the classroom. Each lesson contains four components: Motivation, Activity, Metacognition, and Transfer;. The author concludes the thesis with more general classroom teaching suggestions and a review of current innovative educational approaches.
subject codes .SCI.MSE

Joseph Carlin
Critical and Creative Thinking for Nutritionists: A Training Program
1990, December
Directed by John R. Murray
In order to improve the critical and creative thinking skills of nutritionists and dietitians I developed two one-day training programs. The training programs are designed to help nutritionists develop their creative problem solving skills and to improve their critical thinking strategies when dealing with controversial nutrition issues and with fraudulent food practices.
The Creative Problem Solving Nutrition Training Program is built around a series of exercises, each progressive more complex, that help trainees develop their thinking skills. The goal is to help trainees become more flexible and mindful of how they solve problems. Trainees will learn the techniques of creative problem solving such as brainstorming and list making. Trainees will also learn to use Sternberg's seven elements of problem solving as a conceptual model for solving problems. They will also be exposed to left and right brain modes of thinking.
The Critical Thinking Nutrition Training Program recognizes that even nutritionists find it difficult to come to a reasonable assessment of fact on many food and nutrition issues, such as food irradiation and the use of Alar as a pesticide. The exercises in this program offer trainees practical experience in working through a succession of progressively more difficult problems. The objectives of this program are to help nutritionists to develop their critical thinking skills and strategies so they can more successfully deal with complex and controversial nutrition issues; to help trainees develop a conceptual framework for understanding and combating fraudulent food practices; and, to help nutritionists develop the critical thinking skills of their patients, clients and the public.
subject codes .MED.GOV

Franco Carnelli
Pond Secrets: Reflections for Thought and Virtue
1997, September
Directed by John Murray
Pond secrets is an original play designed to create a context for motivating children to learn and practice critical thinking in its strongest sense through reflective dialogue and improvisational drama. The story's design, content, and suggested methodology are theoretically consistent with Brain-based learning theory, which asserts that memorable learning occurs when children can integrate concepts, emotions, and values in a meaningful context and environment. Using a mythical setting and features of classical literature, Pond secrets invites children to join the animals of Pond as they gather to examine their thinking and affirm the
meaning of friendship, citizenship, and justice. Not settling on any one definition of critical thinking, Pond secrets reflects a synthesis of expert descriptions that advances the following
modified definition: Critical thinking is used to make decisions, form beliefs, solve problems, and learn new concepts. It is a dialogical questioning process that uses reasonable and imaginative reflection. Additionally, it is a purposive and disciplined process that relies on
criteria, is self-correcting, and is sensitive to context. In its strongest sense, critical thinking is fair-minded and caring. Moreover, Pond secrets targets the following critical thinking skills for development : making a reliable observation, evaluating a source of information forming a reliable framework for perspectives, and examining cause and effect relationships. The target skills are infused and interwoven in the story to enable children to develop skill using them individually and together as a process transferable through subject domain.
Pond secrets models a community of inquiry that provokes integrative learning while promoting the application of critical and creative thinking to the moral domain of reasoning. As a framework for deliberation and dialogue, Pond secrets develops a model of justice that balances the principles of equal treatment and beneficence; Pond secrets replaces beneficence with the ethic of caring as a more accurate description of the orientation of empathic underscoring the promotion of goodness.
Pond secrets is accompanied by a theoretical guide that discusses the main ideas relevant to its implementation, The guide reviews cognitive development, issues of indoctrination, the psychological and philosophical underpinning of the justice model, and critical and creative thinking as relevant to Pond secret's content and methodology. Pond secrets offers the educator free imaginative reign to design lesson plans that suit the needs of the learning environment, provided that the criteria of critical thinking and the justice model are adhered to in methodology that is neutral and accordance with Brain based learning theory.
subject codes .ENV

Carsley Bernadette Carsley
Mythology in the Middle School: A Thinking Skills Curriculum Unit
1996, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
At a time when information changes at an increasingly rapid pace, it is incumbent upon educators to abandon the notion of covering more and more material, and instead, to adopt an approach which focuses on thinking skills. Helping students to think critically and creatively is helping them to succeed not only in school, but also in life. These are the skills and dispositions that will enable them to confront new problems and challenges in positive ways.
If timing is everything, then it seems that the time in a child's life when instructing for these skills becomes most crucial is during early adolescence. Therefore the burden to develop and implement curricula which facilitate this process falls squarely on the middle school teacher. The dilemma becomes how to select a substantial knowledge base and then weave
direct thinking skills instruction through it in order to produce a palatable mix for middle school learners; It is a goal of my thesis to help in solving this dilemma.
Presented here, alongside theory and rationale, is a curriculum unit using a Greek mythology base, designed to teach critical thinking skills and to foster creativity in middle school students. Mythology is a great knowledge base from which to work because it cuts across grades, ability levels and domains. It allows students to reason about serious issues from a safe place. It inspires them to create wonderful stories, art, poetry, and drama. Learning about theology can lead to a better understanding of many academic subjects. Learning to think, and learning about thinking, can lead to a better understanding of one's self.
subject codes .MSE

Frank Carvino
Traditional and Non-Traditional Graduate Academics; Two Models for Consideration
2006, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
As a member of the academic community, I have encountered expectations that I would develop a traditional Master's thesis with very little preparatory instruction and virtually no assistance in initial development. This synthesis project compares the models of two distinct graduate programs using my experiences as a candidate in both programs and the support of secondary literature. Historical Archaeology is used as a concrete example of the traditional program and the Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) synthesis is used as the alternative to hold the dominant paradigm in tension with. In order to help to construct my CCT model, I have solicited suggestions from the CCT community. As a result of the comparison between traditional academia and CCT several techniques emerge. Some techniques like; creativity, assessment, and group-work appear to be shared across disciplines. While other techniques like; free writing, metacognition, and reflection are unique to CCT, but could easily be learned and transmitted to other programs. The results however do not indicate that one program is better than the rest rather the comparison illustrates the need for information exchange between programs. My goal is not to suggest that every graduate student become a candidate in two different programs, but rather make students aware of the variety of techniques available when approaching something as sophisticated as writing a Masters thesis. The CCT program offers tools and techniques remarkably different from those offered under a more 'traditional' framework. However, CCT techniques can be integrated into other graduate programs and can work in a variety of professions.
subject codes .TCE

Lizzie Casanave
Empathy and Communication: Educating for Interaction
1999, June
Directed by Lawrence Blum
In traditional educational arenas, rarely does the curriculum focus on how individuals should interact with one another. Yet in a society where interactions are a significant part of our lives, there should be more emphasis on this subject. By neglecting this subject, we fractionalize society, breaking down the natural unity of our world. However, the subject of how to interact with others links closely with the age old moral question, how should one live? There are often disagreements on how to answer this question and consequently disagreements on how and if it can be taught. This paper is the beginning of a search for how interactions can be taught through empathy and communication. Through the critical thinking skills that support these concepts, individuals can learn how to interact more effectively and morally with others.
I began this study by endeavoring to obtain a greater understanding of empathy and its nature. I reviewed the works of several philosophers and psychologists such as Lipps, Stotland, Hoffman, Scheler, and Noddings. Their writings led me to understand empathy as the act of receiving another into oneself through affective and analytical means in order to understand another's frame of reference accurately.
This paper then discusses how empathy can be developed. Many of the empathy development suggestions overlap with techniques involved with improving interpersonal communications, including dialogue. Dialogue, as described by David Bohm, is for the purpose of learning from each other and thus creating shared meaning, which like empathy, connects and unifies those involved. This paper also shares several examples of already existing educational and developmental programs that utilize the teachings of empathy and communication skills.
Ultimately, the author feels that the skills learned through empathy and communication are but a vehicle for determining how one should live. Further studies may lead to an investigation on what impels us to care for and ultimately love our fellow beings and thus come closer to embracing the wholeness of life.
subject codes .MOR

Karen Cavanaugh Borde
A Conceptual Change Approach for Teaching Matter to Sixth Grade Students: Integrating Activities, Experiments, Writing Responses and Verbal Discussion into the Classroom
1999, June
Directed by Carol Smith
Many middle school curricula today need supplemental lessons to really encourage the kind of critical thinking which promotes conceptual change. In this paper, I discuss why such supplemental materials are necessary, and then draw from multiple sources in devising such materials for a unit plan on matter. Teaching this concept to sixth grade science students is extremely challenging. Upon entering a science classroom, they already have theories, often misconceptions, based on their own life experiences. This paper begins by reviewing the research which supports a conceptual change approach to teaching as the most effective method. It also discusses the central role of metacognition and writing in such a process. Using these ideas as guides, I then discuss the limitations of the current matter curriculum used in my district. Next I propose a revised way of teaching this topic which builds on ideas developed by other researchers such as Smith and colleagues (1994, 1997) and Hennessey (1994). Finally, I combine them with a writing process, proposed by Collins (1992), as an assessment tool.
The goal of the revised curriculum is to teach students how to develop the skill of scientific inquiry. It calls for group discussions before, during and after classroom activities. Through a diverse set of activities, experiments, models, writing assignments and class discussions, students design their own experiments which they then perform in class. They pose questions, or problems, create hypotheses, and then test those hypotheses on their own. They are encouraged to reflect on their thoughts about how an experiment worked, gather results and then redesign and test it again. The paper concludes by discussing how I could evaluate the success of my proposed curriculum. A sixth grade class would be taught about matter through "traditional" teaching methods, another would learn the same unit through my newly proposed curriculum. Pre and post writing assignments in both classes would be reviewed to determine what conceptual changes took place in students' thinking about matter. I feel confident that the results of both would support my curriculum as an effective method of teaching.
subject codes .SCI.MSE

Renessa Ciampa Brewer
Creative Consciousness: Becoming a Reflective Designer
2011, May
Directed by Carol Smith
As a graphic designer, I was drawn to the CCT Program in part because I desired to strengthen my thinking skills as a creative professional. Through being reflective, I aimed to "get more in touch" with my process to better understand it and see how I might improve my approaches. Scholarship on reflective practice in design education and design practice is a growing body of literature, which inspired this synthesis project. This paper looks at Schön's theories of reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, models for reflection in the design process provided by Ellmers, Brown, and Bennett, and Reymen, and various reflective practice tools (such as journals, weblogs, and critical incident questionnaires). I then adapt and apply select elements of these models and tools, experimenting with them during the process of developing book cover design concepts for this paper. I document my reflections on both my design process and my experiences using the tools. // Observations made about my approaches to concept development included the use of language as a powerful tool, awareness of "the voice of the critic," benefits of seeking feedback and trying new creative thinking tools, and a desire to improve approaches to preliminary design research and to evaluation of design concepts. Perceived strengths and limitations of the reflection tools included the journal and the written self-assessments being the most convenient and easy to use during the design process, the checklists being more technical and less easy to use in reflecting freely, but beneficial for use in reacquainting with the design project if time has passed between design sessions; and the weblog (blog) being most useful for more refined, concise reflections, forcing the blogger to re-articulate their process in order to speak to an audience. In general, documenting reflections on the design process immediately following a design session was highly beneficial to my goal of "getting more in touch" with my process and beginning to think about the strengths and areas to improve in my approaches. // This paper concludes with considerations about transferring reflective practice from my solo practice to a collaborative work environment, building a community of creative professionals, being a designer who is also a feminist, and brief thoughts on improving design education. subject codes.ART.RPN
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Sheryl Cifrino
One nurse's journey to understanding burnout
2002, August
Directed by Nina Greenwald
Burnout is the end result of a process where I, a highly motivated nurse, engaged in my work and lost inspiration for it. Burnout is by definition a syndrome of emotional exhaustion in people who work intensely with others in emotionally charged situations. My participation in the Creative Critical Thinking (CCT) program at the University of Massachusetts Boston awakened a desire in me to search for a deeper understanding of my own experience with burnout. Motivation for the journey was a wish to develop my own company, "Wellinspire," which would help nurses deal with personal wellness. This journey of inquiry led me on an exploration of the literature on burnout, seeking knowledge of key aspects identified, along with possible connections to specific personality characteristics. By reviewing the literature and employing acquired critical thinking abilities of reflection, self assessment, analysis and interpretation, I reached a deeper level of awareness. These CCT abilities are coupled with the use of my intrapersonal intelligence.
subject codes.MED.FRP

Jim Clark
Assessing Thinking in Middle School Students
1997, June
Directed by Patricia Cordiero, Adjunct Professor
Steps are outlined describing how to diagnose specific thinking skills in middle school students within a testing context for the purpose of developing appropriate instruction and remediation. The need for instruction in critical thinking skills is represented to have
a twofold application. First, the market place demands critical thinking skills. This is documented in the report by the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. Second, learning both in school and for life also requires critical thinking skills. This is documented in a range of research literature referenced and in a number of educational interventions
reviewed.
An instrument has been designed to be administered to middle school students. It begins with a narrative prompt set in circumstances familiar to students and poses a combination of social, moral, and practical dilemmas. A series of eight questions prompts students to respond in essay form reflecting their skill with specific critical thinking skills in accordance with the taxonomy. In addition, a set of scoring rubrics is provided.
Finally, there are some reflections based on informal trials and intuitions which focus on three areas: implications for instruction, implications for curriculum, and an application to staff development.
subject codes .MSE

Suzanne Clark
Building and Sustaining Connectedness to One's Musical Creativity and Spirit
2002, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
While journeying through the Critical and Creative Thinking Program I became more deeply aware of the choices and circumstances that colored my engagement in the fields of musical performance and music education. Through the modeling of and participation in reflective practice, I began to see my experiences from new and varied perspectives. In using self-evaluation, I gained a clearer understanding of my own reflective processes and began to apply this knowledge to exploring my musical engagement and creativity. It was through a self-reflective exploration of my own creative process that I discovered a number of experiences that had steered my course in a particular direction. Each of these experiences, however, also contributed to my path in that they were missing important elements that would allow for a more integrated experience to take place. These discoveries inspired me to explore the creative process of other musicians and artists in order to see where all of our experiences crossed.
To start, this paper outlines my self-assessment of my involvement in music and the creative process. I have chosen to reveal this first as I feel it will give the reader an understanding of how I came to the conclusions I have about my own personal experiences and subsequently, how they led me to explore the experiences of other musicians. My own reflective and creative engagement taught me that having an internal connection to the self is essential in carrying out these activities. As I found this inner focus to be both a necessary skill and one of the missing elements in my educational experiences, I felt it was necessary to find out if this was indeed an important part of the creative process and if so, how other artists handled this internal, reflective aspect of creativity. This examination led to the discovery of parallels between my own creative blocks and the blocks of other artists, as well as tools we all could use to help eliminate or prevent such blocks and become more attuned to our creative self.
My research led me to conclude that the various elements that were missing from my experiences were important factors in promoting healthy musical and creative engagement. Incorporating these facets on a personal level through self-study or a formal learning experience will help ensure creative longevity for any artist. An artist needs to recognize the internal aspects of their creative process, and also learn how to navigate through the phases of their process. In addition, artists need to recognize and remove creative blocks in order to sustain their work and promote creative growth. Reflective practice that supports these activities needs to be explored and should become part of the artist's path towards manifesting their creativity.
subject codes .ART.FRP

Jan Coe
My Search for a Meaningful Information Literacy Course: A Drama in Three Acts
2007, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
My synthesis project began as a personal and professional mission to help students decipher their library assignments and learn how to do research in general. In pursuing this goal, I learned a lot about 'information literacy' but I also learned about the reasons being information literate is important to me: it is a gestalt of a critical thinker. I discovered that - beyond becoming adept in the mechanics of information retrieval - what I really wanted for my students are the very things I value and enjoy doing myself: learning about communities of discourse; mulling over and asking questions about existing knowledge; relinquishing preconceived notions about a subject; and discovering new perspectives and interests. In the end, my project turned out to be not so much a search for an information literacy course as it is an exposition of one librarian's open-ended evolution into a critical thinker and reflective practitioner. At the start of my year-long sabbatical leave in the Critical & Creative Thinking Graduate Program at the University of Massachusetts Boston, I characterized my quest as an inquiry into the most meaningful way that students could be taught information literacy skills. This synthesis project recounts how I first deepened my interest in the nexus between information literacy, critical thinking, and problem-based learning through an extensive literature review. Following this, the project takes a narrative turn where my experiences in the CCT Program are described and celebrated. I show that my participation in the CCT Program was the catalyst for the changes that began to occur in my thinking about information literacy. As my original quest took on these new dimensions, I also became intellectually engaged in areas outside of information literacy. Several courses I took in the Program elicited strong interests in bioethical issues and in the capacity of citizens to have input into debates around science and technology. Finally, I describe my teaching experiences upon returning to work, in which I came to the eventual recognition that there is no 'silver bullet' information literacy course. Being able to set aside this idea paradoxically opened a new avenue toward achieving my mission as I was invited to form a Learning Community with a geographic information systems (GIS) course. It appears that, from this point forward, I am open and prepared to continue developing as a 'work-in-process'.
subject codes .TCE
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Roberta Cohen
Altering Habit-Bound Thinking Through a Critical Thinking Skills Approach to Children's Literature
1980, May
Directed by Beebe Nelson
As an educator, I have encountered many students who appear incapable of critically evaluating material. The result is that they are unable to think issues through and arrive at a logical conclusion. I feel students don't have the necessary critical thinking skills (as the dictionary defines them) "to determine, resolve, work out, etc. by reasoning; to use the mind for arriving at conclusions, making decisions; drawing inferences."[1] The lack of critical thinking skills is evident early in the year, and as I teach the lessons contained in the curriculum, I realize that many children's skills are not likely to improve. I question whether the previous teacher has prepared the students and know that the following September the teacher who receives these students will ask the same question.
In trying to address this problem which I have encountered in the classroom, I am caught in the dilemma of whether to meet the needs of my students as I see them or to try to teach the curriculum as prescribed by the administration. My practice, and the practice of most teachers, has been to emphasize the latter.
subject codes .WRL

Lisa Collier
Empathy, Critical Thinking, and Creativity: Theories, Training, and Interrelationships
1990, December
Directed by Steven Schwartz
This thesis presents a supposition, based on a review of existing theoretical and empirical literature, that there exists a three-way relationship between empathy, critical thinking, and creative thinking. Initially readers are provided with an overview of some of the literature on empathy theories, as well as on training methods used for the promotion of empathy. Then, through an examination and comparison of ideas put forward by empathy theorist Martin Hoffman, critical thinking philosopher Robert Ennis, and creativity expert Teresa Amabile, an overlap is detected with regard to the components involved in the three above-mentioned areas of study. In addition to this componential overlap, a stronger consanguinity is presented as existing between some of the theorized and/or researched methods of training for empathy, critical thinking, and creativity. These methods include; role playing, modeling, nuturance, formal reasoning and highlighting. The fourth chapter discussed the educational implications in terms of the infusion of the five methods into regular academic curriculum, and the notion that teachers can learn to fulfill three objectives (empathy, critical thinking, and creativity) via the use of just one of the previously-mentioned techniques. These techniques can help those involved in education to efficiently provide students with "real" situations in which to use skills in empathy and critical and creative thinking, and an opportunity for deeper engagement with and this, understanding of, the content at hand.
subject codes .MOR.THR

Maggie Conley
Using Critical and Creative Thinking Skills to Enhance Integrity in Business Organizations
1996, December
Directed by John Murray
In this thesis I explore some of the ways in which critical thinking skills can be used to facilitate the development of integrity in business organizations. The vehicle I have developed to bring these thinking skills to organizations is a one-day intensive workshop with a follow-up half-day evaluation session. In chapter one, I define integrity and compare it to Stephen Carter's definition. I also analyze five specific critical thinking skills and relate them to two actual cases: Dow Corning and fictitiously named, First National Bank. In the Dow Corning case, I argue that management might have produced a less destructive outcome had they used critical thinking skills to analyze their problems and come to a resolution. In the second case, with First National Bank, I discuss how the bank managers successfully used critical thinking skills to arrive at an ethical decision.
In chapter two, I present the workshop which is designed to develop critical thinking skills and enhance integrity. The last part of the chapter is concerned with evaluating and reinforcing the skills developed in the workshop. In chapter three, I integrate the material from the first two chapters. I review Carter's definition of integrity and examine it in light of the five critical thinking skills, the workshop skills and the Dow Coming and First National cases. Those who read this thesis should come away with a clear idea of some ways in which critical thinking can facilitate the development of integrity in business organizations.
subject codes .COR

Mark J. Connerty
Three Theories of Development: A Comparison of Dewey, Kohlberg, and Noddings' Models of Moral Growth
1998, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
This paper will compare the moral theories developed by John Dewey, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Nel Noddings to discern places of agreement and areas of dispute. The paper will also examine the most consequential ethical formulations of the three thinkers. For Dewey it is his conception of conscientiousness. For Kohlberg it is the idea of justice. Lastly, for Noddings it is the virtue of empathy found in the caring response. These conceptions are the foundations of their moral ideas. They color their thoughts on such related topics as the objective versus subjective nature of morality, the role of the rational and the emotional faculties in decision making, and the elements of moral judgment. This paper will examine where Dewey, Kohlberg, and Noddings stand on these issues and how they compare and contrast with each other. Their theories present an insightful glimpse into the entirety and diversity of the moral nature that informs the human condition. For this the moral theories of Dewey, Kohlberg, and Noddings
subject codes .THR

Ellen Connors
Waldorf education: Pedagogy in support of good thinking
1997, February
Directed by Delores Gallo
This synthesis project examines Waldorf school pedagogy and its relation to critical and creative thinking philosophy. It identifies the limitations of the traditional positivist perspective in education and calls for attention to the development of empathy. I take the work of Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Delores Gallo, Peter McLauren, and Kerry Walters as my framework. Good thinking is used as term meaning a true synergy of critical and creative thinking.
Waldorf pedagogy is outlines as a holistic enterprise based upon Rudolf Steiner's theory of human development. This model described the human as a being of willing, feeling and thinking. Education of a student as such, fosters critical and creative thinking in the sense of good thinking. Anecdotal evidence of the benefits of a Waldorf education is offered in the voice of a high school junior, along with other sources.
Waldorf education teaches for critical and creative thinking. Not only does Waldorf pedagogy support the education of thinking (reason) and feeling (imagination and empathy), it also educates for responsibility and action explicitly through development of the will.
subject codes.THR

Constance Cook
Serendipity and Persistence: A Journey Building a Rich Music-Making Culture in Public Schools
2011, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
I am a music teacher in the public schools. This synthesis project presents a Practitioner's Portfolio to convey my efforts over the last decade and more in pursuit of a rich culture of music in public schools. Readers should see someone who persists when faced with personal, pedagogical, intellectual, and institutional challenges. Moreover, that persistence is conducive of the serendipity through which opportunities open up to be an agent of change. What is also evident to me as I assembled the Portfolio was that the Kodály model of artist, scholar, and pedagogue seems to have been the underpinning for much of my journey of inquiry and practice even though my formal Kodály training began some years after this journey starts. // Part I is a narrative describing the path of events and thinking on this journey, which continues to this day. This account includes explorations into the power of opera, bones playing, jug band, and Kodály pedagogy to effect change and create unforgettable experiences in the music classroom. One has serendipity again and again, but one must be open to it and catch the bright wave, to revisit, explore and develop more experiences for teaching and learning that fit the particular culture of the time and situation. The act of persistence, the witnessing of what is unfolding and where the tendencies and interests are, encouraging and nurturing them as well as the act of letting go, can create enormous depth and richness to a culture of music for a school or community. // Part II presents some persistent or emerging undercurrents informing my theory and practice, which range from centonization to leverage, from shaping by successive approximations to differences of aesthetics among students that allows me to work more freely. // Part III presents some exhibits of my practice, which include: use of the Mexican singing story and picture book, "Senor Don Gato," to teach about opera, given that it has the same dramatic elements; the development of an opera program that was instrumental in changing the social climate of a school; the use of a singing game to build strong and cooperative community in a class new to me; and the sharing of these ideas and their potential with colleagues at Massachusetts Music Educators Association conferences, where I have presented regularly. // Part IV discusses my next steps as Scholar, Pedagogue, Artist, and, I hope, Writer. These steps range from having more singing in schools where I teach to refining a once weekly Kodály curriculum, to creating a musical presentation based on Greek mythology with my fifth graders, to establishing an effective practice of writing and documenting my inquiries more regularly and effectively. // The Appendices provide some further illustrations of my practice: The development of Kodály primers for young American students; the development of my personal artistry through Little Blue Heron, a duo that worked with children and included them in performance; and the development of a richer music educators' community through regular presentations to my colleagues and the reviving of Round Robin, the newsletter of Boston Area Kodály Educators. subject codes.ART.ELE
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Pamela Joy Cooke
Changing Mathematics Learning Through Changing Teachers' Thinking
1991, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
In the context of the goals for reform in mathematics education, as advocated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, this thesis calls for elementary level students to be actively engaged in learning mathematics through the use of hands-on materials and problem solving situations which involve investigation, reasoning, and communication. These mathematical goals are discussed and then related to the more general critical thinking skills of identifying and formulating questions, asking and answering questions, investigating and analyzing data, deducing and judging deductions, inducing and judging inductions, defining terms, and interacting with others. This thesis is based heavily on the experience of the author, as she evolved from being a traditional elementary mathematics teacher, novice student of critical and creative thinking, and skeptical participant in her first Mathematics a Way of Thinking workshop to becoming a confident and thinking mathematics teacher, flexible and effective workshop leader, and strong advocate for reform in mathematics education.
From these experiences, it has become clear to the author that in order for the goals for reform to be met, there must not only be changes in what is taught, but also in how it is taught. In order for teachers to change the way they teach, they must re-learn mathematics in a framework that involves them in active learning and small group interaction with an instructor who models strategies and behaviors for teaching thinking. In this thesis, the author shares her experiences in trying to become this type of teacher trainer.
This thesis examines the Mathematics a Way of Thinking workshop as a model for effective teacher training and provides sample mathematical lessons as instruments for change. Ten teachers who participated in the author's workshops and who are ;trying to implement change in their own classrooms were interviewed. Dialogues with these teachers are quoted to indicate their experiences of change in the learning and teaching of mathematics.
subject codes .TCE

Phyllis Cooper
Critical and Creative Thinking: A Literature Approach
1987, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
"I have grown increasingly disturbed by the lack of correspondence between what is required for critical thinking in adulthood and what is being taught in school programs intended to develop critical thinking. The problems of thinking in the real world do not correspond well to with the problems of the large majority of programs that teach critical thinking. We are preparing students to deal with problems that are in many respects unlike those that they will face as adults." Robert Sternberg, "Teaching Critical Thinking, Part I: Are We Making Critical Mistakes?"
Sternberg goes on to suggest that a major difficulty is that we do not teach children to recognize when a problem exists or to do Problem finding. Instead, we give them the problem and then tech them to solve it. I would add that we need to go one step further at this point and teach children that even when they have recognized the existence of a problem, that which initially appears to be the problem may not be. Therefore we need to teach children the importance e of problem definition as well as of the solution process.
At a time when decision-making and problem solving have become increasingly complex, when the future for our children holds so many alternatives and so few certainties, I believe it is our mandated responsibility as teachers to help our children develop the critical and creative thinking skills, skills of sound reasoning and good judgment, which are not only desirably, but are imperative in the future of which they are required to be a responsible part.
subject codes .WRL

Patricia Cordeiro
Big Ideas for Little People: Critical Thinking and Mathematical Concept Exploration in Elementary School
1991, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
An extended study of group theory was undertaken with a sixth-grade class to explore the integration of critical thinking and concept development in the mathematics curriculum. A supportive classroom environment was sustained through application of Cambourne's (l988) optimal conditions of learning and Gardner's (l9983) theory of multiple intelligences. A belief in the power of play, elaborated by Armstrong (l980) and Duckworth (l987), together with commitment to Vygotsky's (l9652) distinction between ' scientific versus spontaneous' learning enabled a student-centered, active exploration of a "big idea."
Big ideas were defined as: (l) concepts which are generalizable and can be explored and extended into a variety of contexts; (2) studies which begin with the intention to develop a concept; ;and, (3) concepts which continue to intrigue experts. Mathematical big ideas were seen as mathematical concepts which might involve application and computation, but in a broad context.
It was concluded that critical thinking is what goes on naturally when learners are engaged in exploring big ideas in rich context which require and encourage substantial thinking. It is recommended that:
(l) critical thinking be implemented in rich contexts, exploring big ideas;
(2) classroom practice foster optimal conditions for learning;
(3) multiple intelligences be recognized in classroom practice;
(4) concept development be promoted through both scientific and spontaneous processes;
(5) as much as one-half of the mathematics curriculum be organized around the exploration of big ideas; and
(6) teachers be encouraged to trust their own practical knowledge in exploring big ideas which are also big to them.
subject codes .ELE

Bernie Cotter
Critical Thinking Skills in a Meteorology Curriculum
1992, May
Directed by John R. Murray
The focus of this thesis is the integration of critical thinking skills into a meteorology unit of an Earth Science curriculum. The integration of these skills and strategies with the teaching of meteorology subject improves the learning of the subject concepts.
The curriculum consists of three meteorology units. Each unit focuses on a different meteorological concept, and each is broken into several different lessons. Lessons incorporate a number of different critical thinking skills. The lessons are divided into three parts. In the first part, students are introduced to the concepts which are to be learned as well as the thinking skills which are to be emphasized. Part two each lessons involves activities which develop metacognitive skills. The third part of each lesson provides opportunities for students to improve their transfer of critical thinking skills and meteorological information outside the formal classroom setting.
The meteorological concepts covered in these lessons are observations of the atmosphere, atmospheric pressure, and atmospheric humidity. The main critical thinking skills which are incorporate into the curriculum are decision making accuracy of observation, determining reliability of sources, and comparing and contrasting information.
Even though the meteorology lessons are directed toward secondary students in a survey Earth Science course, this curriculum could easily be implemented in a separate meteorology course. Furthermore, the sample lessons included here can serve as models for the development of thinking skills lessons on other topics in Earth Science and can enhance student learning in the entire course.
subject codes .SCI.MSE

Linda Cromwell-Clark
Critical Thinking Considerations for an Elementary Science Magnet School
1994, December
Directed by Carol Smith
As an African- American and a veteran Boston school teacher, I feel that there is great cause for concern about the future of urban African-American youth. Existing instructional programs fail to meet the needs of many of these children. The model science magnet school developed in this thesis will provide an educational alternative for African-American youth entering the twenty-first century. The school's program will combine the teaching of critical and creative thinking skills, with science education, and efficacy training to address the academic and personal development of the total child.
Chapter l of the thesis looks at some existing programs in elementary science education and assesses the need for more intensive, innovative programs which will deal with the affective as well as the cognitive growth of students. Chapter 11 explores some of the literature concerning the complexity of Black self-concept in White America;. It links self-esteem with academic success. Here I give a personal commentary on the self-esteem literature as well as examine several efficacy approaches. The chapter concludes with reflections on the relationship between efficacy training and critical and creative thinking. It talks about the importance of metacognition in enabling children to take control of their own learning.
Chapter 111 discusses the need for a science magnet-exploring the scientific process skills as a way of developing thinking skills. The chapter includes a review of the current status and recommendations for teaching science in elementary schools and goes on to examine teaching for conceptual change, elements of a supportive learning environment, techniques for promoting critical and creative thinking, and a framework for curriculum design.
Chapter IV gives an overview of the entire magnet school program, delineating how I plan to combine the science focus with affective goals. Teacher training, parent involvement, and assessment are also discussed.
Chapter V. the last chapter, focuses on ways of bringing together these diverse strands within the proposed curriculum and presents some sample lesson plans which include objectives in the area of social/emotional development, cooperative learning, and efficacy as well as conceptual change and behavioral objectives.
subject codes .ELE

Jeff Craig
Bringing Community College Students and Employers Together: A Guide For Employers And Career Centers in an Economic Decline
2009, May
Directed by Arthur Millman
This paper emerges from my work as Coordinator of Job Placement at Bristol Community College over the last 19 months, in which I have had the opportunity to try new approaches to problem-solving and pursue professional growth as I serve students in higher education.
The recent economic crisis has left millions of Americans out of work across most sectors. Displaced workers are flocking to community colleges to upgrade and learn new skills with the goal of becoming more marketable to potential employers. Enrollments have soared, while costs have risen and budgets cut. These conditions place an undue burden on these institutions, which are responsible for educating and training tomorrow's workforce. This paper examines the role of community colleges in our society in the context of how an economic decline impacts their mission. Businesses, which depend on community colleges to supply a steady stream of talent so they can grow and prosper, are urged to continue on-campus recruitment programs despite dwindling recruitment budgets. A guide presents employers with a rationale and strategies for maintaining a strong campus presence.
subject codes.COR.TCE
(Full Text)

Peggy Cronin
Richard Paul, Gloria Anzaluda, and Mestiza Consciousness: Shifting the Borders of Critical Thinking
1997, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
In recent years, many theorists and practitioners in the field of critical and creative thinking have moved beyond a discrete skills understanding of critical and creative thinking to advocate a more holistic approach. This approach focuses on recognizing underlying assumptions, analyzing frames of reference, and fore grounding personal and social biases. Yet despite this much needed move toward contextualizing thinking and the thinker, there is little attention given to the role that power and identity difference play in the development and teaching of thinking.
This thesis concerns itself with the issues of power, identity, and difference in thinking by comparing the work of critical thinking theorist Richard Paul with that of several race-inflected lesbian feminist theorists. I consider what happens if we try to insert a very specific thinking subject -- Gloria Anzaldua's mestiza thinker -- into Pauls theoretical milieu.
INFORMATION MISSING FROM ORIGINAL inhabiting a multiple consciousness the mesliza must also deal with the issue of how she is seen as different from the norm. This necessitates a discussion of how difference is inflected by unequal power dynamics that have an effect on how we envision the thinker how we
grant her authority, and how we define and validate effective thinking. I use critiques of white feminist theory by Anzaldua, Norma Alarcon, and Maria Lugones to illustrate how some of Paul1s theorizing of the thinking subject parallels white feminist theorizing which has ignored devalued women of color in neglecting issues of multiple subjectivity, power, and
difference.
In conclusion, I argue that the critical and creative thinking field would be served by an inclusion of lesbian/feminist of color discourses. These discourses might serve as examples of critical and creative thinking, as well as give us a more complete portrait of the thinker and thinking that goes beyond the notion of the thinker as a universal, unitary self.
subject codes .GEN.THR

Karen Crounse
Staircase To Slope: A Mathematics Learning Expedition
2005, December
Directed by Nina Greenwald

subject codes .SCI

Paul D. Culpo
Winning in Athletics
1996, September
Directed by John R. Murray
subject codes .SPO

Mary Cunningham
A Critical and Creative Thinking Curriculum Guide
1986, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
"Thinking critically implies a commitment to philosophical probing of questions, asking us to tell right from wrong, fact from opinion, process from product." [1] Through the study of tragedy, Shakespeare, JULIUS CAESAR and ROMEO AND JULIET, ninth grade students at Braintree High School will be asked to ponder and analyze some of life's most enigmatic, elusive and eternal problems. Why does a good man suffer? How can art communicate the most profound of human experiences? How can one take pleasure in the tragic experience? Literature deals with life's most inexplicable moments and most complex ideas. Indubitably, Shakespearean tragedy reaises questions about the nature of the human experience in a way that is beautiful as well as thought-provoking, imaginative as well as relavent, perplexing as well as perceptive. Indeed, sometimes Shakespeare just recognizes the inequities of life and presents these problems for our consideration. This genius, this immortal bard, does not claim to have the answers but he does claim, through his work, to know the problems. And even though the plays achieve a sense of resolution, the questions Shakespeare unearths still remain for our consideration.
subject codes .WRL

Linda DaCorta
An Immigration Unit: Appreciation and Tolerance
1997, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
Synthesis
subject codes .DIV

Brian Daniels
The Critical Moral Classroom: An Approach to Teaching Values
1996
Directed by Lawrence Blum
In this thesis the proper place and instruction of morals and values in public schools is considered from an historic, and social view. A pedagogical approach to teaching values in the classroom, which is based in critical thinking, is offered as a resolution to the stalemate regarding morals and values in schools that is a result of competing cultural forces. In the historical review chapter I make a case that America's public school teachers have always been charged with the moral development of their students and that this charge has been primary over much of our history. The chapter concludes that teachers today have lost that voice or that it has in some way been silenced.
In the next chapter I review forces outside of the classroom that impact school policy and teacher's willingness to engage in moral issues. Considered are cultural changes, the power of the religious right, the courts, liberal responses, and the impact on educators of professionalization.
The next chapter is focused on a pedagogical approach to the challenge of teaching values in the classroom called, the critical-moral classroom. This approach synthesizes a holistic vision of classrooms, strong sense critical thinking skills, the application of the 'Golden Rule" to thinking, and the prophetic voice in education. The critical-moral classroom is suggested as
a way to restore a moral voice to teachers by thinking about morals and virtues, as opposed to naming what is moral.
This approach frees the teacher from many of those external forces that have silenced teachers' moral voices and offers a reflective approach to the classroom. The critical-moral classroom offers teachers of all disciplines a platform from which to address their own moral development and that of their students.
I close with conclusions and observations about the concept of the critical-moral classroom and reflections on the importance of individual teachers considering their role as moral leaders in their classrooms.
subject codes .MOR

Jan Daubenspeck
The Influence of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills on Curriculum Design and Course Teaching Strategies
1997, September
Directed by ?
subject codes.THR

Neuza DeFigueredo
Using Science Misconceptions for Developing Critical Thinking in Learners and Teachers
1994, December
Directed by Arthur B. Millman
Students' poor interest and academic achievement in science as well as their inability to master situations in their everyday life seem to be related to their lack of skills in critical and creative thinking. However, teaching such skills within both primary and secondary curricula is not mandatory. The consensus is much more toward teaching thinking skills through content than as a separate course. In this thesis the conflict between students' prior conceptions about the natural world and scientific concepts is viewed as a resource for teaching thinking skills. A review of the literature on science misconceptions in mechanics suggests that science misconceptions are the product of students' active constructions as students try to make sense of the information given to their sensory system. In addition, the knowledge acquired from science class is not passively incorporated in students' minds. Both points are supported by the constructivist epistemology and cognitive psychology.
Analogical reasoning and concept mapping are two instructional metacognitive strategies designed to deal with students' misconceptions to bring about conceptual change in the learner. This process involves the replacement of the learner's previous knowledge by the scientific view through a process of awareness of one's starting conceptions and evaluation of their consistency with evidence. This implies possessing the ability of making shifts from one context to another, such as from the science classroom environment to everyday life. In this thesis both strategies are also seen as a means to engage learners in a metacognitive process through the organization and reflection of their beliefs, making them explicit and available to themselves, teacher and peers using dialogical thinking. Those strategies are very effective in promoting the development of skills in critical and creative thinking using multiple frames of reference. The conclusions draw attention to the important role played by teachers within the new constructivist perspective of learning, and to the need to integrate school science and technology using teacher creativity to enhance the science curriculum and promote meaningful learning. They also provide some suggestions for future work to explore the viability of using science misconceptions to develop critical and creative thinking skills.
subject codes .SCI

Virginia L. De La Garza Sepulveda
Children's Story: Per-Se-Vere
2009, May
Directed by Nina Greenwald
We constantly come across problems or challenges that have no predetermined answer or solution. Perseverance is a very important disposition that makes us persist in the search of something we have started. I believe that people who want to persevere not only need to be motivated but, more importantly, they need to understand what it takes to persevere or, in other words, know how to persevere. Developing strategies to face and overcome confusion, obstacles, and frustrations is needed for learning. The teaching of Intellectual Perseverance is frequently taken for granted or not taught appropriately. Attitudes, dispositions, and habits of mind needed to persevere, should be explored, discussed, experienced, and specifically taught in school and at home.
This synthesis presents a transition book called "PER-SE-VERE" for children between 5- 8 years old. It focuses on the acquisition of tools for developing Intellectual Perseverance. The book, included in draft form here, is an essential toolbox designed to help parents, teachers and children reflect on their perceptions and beliefs about Intelligence, Learning, Success, Failure, Effort, and the way they face challenging situations. A printed copy of the book and an audio version are available on request.
subject codes .ELE
(full text)
Gina Dillon Podolsky
My Journey To Develop An Innovative Approach To Unplanned Pregnancy
2011, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
This paper is my personal journey in developing the non-profit Pennies for Pause that addresses the issue of unplanned pregnancy in the 18-29 populations through the use of incentives, social media, long-acting reversible contraception and the development of critical and creative thinking skills. The paper begins with an insight into my family, how my own thinking skills developed informally throughout my life, and how my personal experiences lead to the development of the 501 (c)(3) organization Pennies for Pause. It also provides insight into my casual observations that I used to create theories, which I then researched, S.C.A.M.P.E.R.E.D, and then synthesized into the framework of the organization. The most important observations I made, and therefore the pivotal force behind the development of Pennies for Pause, are, the apparent disconnect between contraception and lifestyle, the use of technology in community building, and the marketing of long-acting reversible contraception. Instead of addressing contraception as a lifestyle commitment, the current model seems to be cemented in a 1960s institutional approach to contraceptive education. In this paper you will see how I have developed a new model to address unplanned pregnancy by using the current methods of the more popular non-profit organizations and tailored them to appeal to the 18-29 populations. // My approach to unplanned pregnancy also addresses the issue of abortion by advocating for the more effective and invasive methods of long-acting reversible contraception. I also explain how my experience as an online student in a cohort group encouraged me to design a program that uses modern technology and community building along with distribution of incentives in the form of material rewards to hopefully modify behavior. subject codes.CTY.GEN.MED
(Full Text)

Barbara DiTullio
Refining Operating Room Communication: Creating A Culture Of Improved Teamwork For The Future Of Perioperative Nursing
2006, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
As a nurse and manager in the operating room of a metropolitan hospital I consider myself fortunate to be in the job of my dreams. I am proud to be in an environment that delivers the best care to a population that is worldwide. The challenges in delivering this level of care, however, are significant. The issue of communication and teamwork among the various disciplines in the operating room proves to be one of the most complex issues at hand. The operating room environment is wrought with stress both implicit and explicit, and presents formidable obstacles that interfere with effective team dynamics. Operating rooms have a long standing culture of silence and hierarchy that alienates disciplines from one another (Edmondson, 2003; Weeks, 2004). Though each professional on the team has spent years refining their respective skills, few have had training that enables them to address an offending remark or appropriately handle a disagreement in this environment. Bystander apathy contributes in potentiating problems where individuals keep quiet; each thinking another will address the offending issue at hand. To make matters worse, the doors close and hours can pass before surgery ends and the team can disperse, making it harder still to speak up. These factors result in passivity and indifference adversely affecting communication, teamwork and collaboration. The Critical and Creative Thinking Graduate Program has allowed me to navigate a path toward realizing my mission of improving the culture of teamwork and communication in the operating room. Using the philosophical, critical, cognitive and creative spheres as lenses through which to view this challenge, I was able to evaluate and incorporate a number of communication and teambuilding strategies that have helped me achieve solid progress in this journey. A positive culture shift in this environment is possible and I have taken my first steps. Most importantly, my own self reflection has taken place during this process and I now possess new tools that will allow me to face the daily problems and challenges in my work and in my life with renewed confidence. I now see a whole new world of possibility!
subject codes .MED

Margaret Doherty
Mathematical Problem Solving: Rationale and Approach for Change
1997, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
Synthesis
subject codes .SCI

Judith Donovan
Process Writing: A Comprehensive Methodology for Teaching Thinking and Learning Science
1989, February
Directed by Carol L. Smith
Theorists in the thinking skills movement have provided educators with definite criteria and challenges for change, but educators feel the need to dialogue about how to relate content and process in the curriculum. This thesis work is one teacher's attempt to integrate content knowledge with intellective growth, based on cognitive learning theory and some of the essential components of critico-creative thinking.
Sufficient evidence was found to support the notion that writing provides great potential for the development of thinking. A plan was devised to integrate process writing into a ninth-grade science curriculum, for the purpose of teaching thinking , with an emphasis on problem-finding and problem-solving. Teacher preparation included: the creation of an appropriate classroom climate, the assessment of content goals, and the design of a unit on force and motion, using age-appropriate contextual materials.
As the writing program evolved, students practiced journal writing, wrote lab reports and research papers, and they benefited from the peer-editing process. Through their reflective writing, students practiced higher order thinking skills, they showed interest in their intellective growth, improved study skills, and developed scientific skills and behaviors. Enthusiasm and student-involvement were identified.
There is evidence that process writing is a comprehensive methodology for teaching thinking and leaning science. IT develops general thinking skills, develops scientific inquiry and science-specific products, and it enhances science learning.
subject codes .SCI.WRL.MSE

Robert Drake
A Children's Realm: An Experiment Using Life-Sized Manipulatives to Expand Exploring and Learning Opportunities for Children
2001, August
Directed by Peter J. Taylor
In this synthesis I describe a "Children's Realm" in which middle school children can safely explore and interact with a variety of physical phenomena typically reserved for the adult world, such as building and driving a car. A Children's Realm is an experiment. It is an attempt to not only design, but engineer a unique environment for middle school students to explore and learn. It is based on providing the complex tools I feel children need to do this kind of learning on their own. These complex tools I call Life-Sized Manipulatives or simply LSM. I highlight the importance of LSM in a Children's Realm and how the goals of the Children's Realm depend on them. This paper is a work in progress that represents observations that began when I was a child trying to learn but failing to learn. It continues through a process of learning from failing to teach, and collaborating with the faculty and colleagues of the Critical and Creative Thinking Program at University of Massachusetts-Boston.
I show that my ideas are well conceived by connecting them to the works of others before me. To do this I make connections between the Children's Realm and Adventure Playgrounds, The works of John Dewey, research done in peer to peer relationships, and highlight some of the key features of problem-solving pedagogies. I make these connections as powerfully as I can in order to convince others and hopefully secure funding to continue collaborating with others and further this research.
subject codes .TEC
(Full Text)

John Duff
Reorienting College Student Affairs Activities to Emphasize Student Learning Through Experiential Approaches
2002, June
Directed by Peter J. Taylor
This paper begins with a reflective look at the Student Affairs practice on a community college campus and proposes a shift from a focus on student development to student learning. This shift can occur through the use of experiential learning thoeries theories developed from the tradition of experiential education. Experiential education is based on the philosophy of John Dewey who espoused active learning or learning through doing. David Kolb adapted Dewey's ideas into an Experiential Learning Cycle that explained student learning as the movement through four stages in a cycle. These four stages have subsequently been described in many ways, most simply in The Fifth Discipline, as Deciding, Doing, Reflecting, and Connecting.
The experiential learning cycle has applications to Student Affairs as it describes the process that students go through as they plan student activities, participate in governance of the student body, and publish the college newspaper. Students Affairs professionals who are aware of the experiential learning cycle can use its structure to emphasize student learning in the work that they do. Adopting such an approach allows for a student-learning focus while still providing student development opportunities for the greater student body.
subject codes .TCE

Roger duMars
Philosophical Issues in the Practice and Pedagogy of Film
1994, December
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Pictures, or presentational symbols, are different in many ways from words, or discursive symbols, but both are essential for communication. This thesis explores important differences and similarities between these two symbols systems in their relationship to the creation of films. Literary, psychological, art historical, and photographic traditions have historically been applied to film. However, philosophical methodologies have not been utilized significantly in the analysis of film for practical and pedagogical purposes. The author's fifteen years of experience in all aspects of non-fiction filmmaking are drawn upon to develop a philosophical corpus of terms and concepts intended for the film practitioner, critic, and instructor;.
Through the process of applying ideas from the writings of philosophers, especially Susanne Langer and Nelson Goodman, to films and filmic experience, seven interrelated, operative notions are presented, investigated, developed, and applied to fiction and nonfiction films. Briefly described they are: abstraction (making symbols that are abstracted from the physical object, but still referring to them, or creating symbols that in some way refer to feelings and thought), transformation (developing and correlating symbols so that they express a new logic and meaning in order to convey ideas and feelings). depiction and description (representing, classifying, labeling, and developing techniques of presenting images and ideas). response (providing attention, understanding, and expression), object symbolization(developing symbols that denote referents and have their own purpose), association (relating images and sounds within a frame and within a sequence of frames), and assimilation (incorporating various sources. such as modes, elements, devices and techniques, into film requirements).
Especially timely with the extensive -media capabilities of computers so readily available, this thesis is intended to provide a fresh look at the wide realm of possibilities for developing film models, analyzing films, selecting and developing film techniques, and understanding film structure and film processes.
subject codes .CUL

Kay Dundas
Challenging Children to Think: Using Reading to Teach Critical and Creative Thinking
1988, September
Directed by Wanda Teays
The teaching of critical and creative thinking skills within the context of the reading program can provide students with the tools to think about what they have read. This sthesis uses a thinking skills approach which will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter One. Through direct instruction of the skills, students can identify what skills they are usingand why it is appropriate to use it in a particular situation. Such instruction should also include reflection on the process of thinking. Students need to take time to share how they figure problems out and hear about techniques that others use. Finally, they need to see how thinking can be used in everyday life so that they will not see it as something that is only used in school.
subject codes .WRL.ELE

Timothy Eagan
A Social Constructivist Approach To Content-Based Foreign Language Instruction
2000, December
Directed by Albes Balza
Most students who study a foreign language in the US cannot speak that language -- an outcome that relates directly to the ways in which foreign language instruction typically occurs.
This paper examines and promotes the efficacy of content-based foreign language instruction, a social constructivist process that calls for students to use language in meaningful contexts for meaningful tasks. First, a framework is established for understanding the history of trends in language instruction and how politics and social attitudes toward language study and bilingualism have impacted instruction. Following is a description of contemporary theory in second language acquisition which clarifies the important role of connecting language to meaning and thought. This leads into a discussion about content-based instruction as an effective approach to quality instruction. Subsequently, the paper examines constructivist epistemology, illustrating that language acquisition is a social constructivist process that requires learners to construction their own meaning in collaboration with others. Finally, the paper presents two content-based lessons, applying to classroom practice the theoretical framework and principles that have been defined.
subject codes .LAN

Kristen Eastman
Promoting Geometric Thinking in Grade Four
1993, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
The purpose of this thesis is to describe the development, implementation, and assessment of approaches to geometric teaching and learning which are designed to help children engage in higher levels of mathematical thinking. Although focused on fourth grade, the thesis is broad enough to provide classroom teachers across the grades and supervisors of elementary mathematics with ideas and examples to be used as points of departure for the infusion of higher order thinking within their mathematics classrooms.
After reviewing the historical content of mathematical achievement in the United States from the late l870's to l990, the thesis presents relevant research findings of educators and cognitive psychologists, as well as the recent recommendations and the guidelines of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Such research describes how instruction in mathematics generally, and in geometry specifically, can be changed to promote better mathematical thinking among students and teachers.
A collection of geometry lessons informed by the research and designed to encourage higher order thinking and mathematical insight are described and analyzed. The geometry lessons are selected from a year-long fourth grade geometry program comprised of two major units; Pentominoes, and Plygons and Tessellations.
An authentic assessment method is employed to evaluate student learning throughout the units. This multi dimensional approach to assessment is designed to both document and promote geometric thinking. This approach to assessment includes portfolios comprised of a rich collection of student work and reflections. The portfolios include completed assignments, journal entries, plans, designs, and projects. Students' exhibitions are employed as part of the assessment method. These presentations of long-term investigations are focused on student projects as evidence of problem-solving.
Although the intervention described in this thesis, the development and implementation of instruction, and assessment methods to promote geometric thinking met with a fair amount of success, the following areas are recommended for future emphasis: teaching of thinking skills, development of materials, cooperative learning, students' reflections, students' attitudes and approaches to learning, and students' exhibitions of learning.
subject codes .ELE

Ellen Eberly
How Does the Teacher Know? One Teacher's Search for Authenticity in the Classroom
1996, September
Directed by John R. Murray
The author, a master teacher of secondary language arts, shares her reflections on how she uses CCT skills to synthesize her insights and observations of her own learning, teaching, and investigative experiences - past and present -- in order to make VALID choices about what is worth knowing and teaching in a classroom preparing students for the 21st Century.
In general, the thesis emphasizes the importance of AUTHENTICITY in determining whether a curriculum or teacher's instructional methodology is VALID for today's students. AUTHENTICITY is determined by the degree of personal connectivity experienced by both student and teacher with the subject matter taught and the quality of the END-PRODUCTS or tasks
produced. These end-products should be displayed for, shared with, and/or assessed by a GENERAL AUDIENCE beyond that of the teacher and the classroom walls.
The author offers her curriculum for middle school language arts, MSX LANGUAGE ARTS CURRICULUM OVERVIEW (Appendix III: Chapter 1, only) as a MODEL for those interested in CCT and AUTHENTICITY, but does not propose that it is VALID or AUTHENTIC for other educators and student populations with different priorities.
The author also identifies and discusses the relationships she finds between CCT and the constructs of multiple intelligences (MI), the emotional quotient (EQ), video games, and the writing process. Integrated curriculum learning tasks encourage student awareness and facility using such constructs.
Ultimately, the thesis espouses that students need daily practice using critical and creative thinking processes. Such practice leads to proficiency in higher order thinking and independence from their teachers and parents in identifying and solving problems and applying what has been learned to novel situations.
subject codes .TCE

Susan Els
A Storyteller Versus Three Theorists: One Writer's Creative Process and Current Creativity Theory
1991, May
Directed by Patricia A. Cordiero
The author -- a writer and student of creativity -- sets out to record her creative process while writing a novel and then, match it to prevailing creativity theory. However, in her process notes she finds none of the typical concerns of cognitive psychology, such as problem-finding, risk-taking, breaking set, and other heuristics. The three theorists -- Amabile, Perkins, and Howard -- who seems impressive to the author as a student, turn irrelevant when she reads these through the eyes of a writer-storyteller.
From the fatty flesh of her notes and unformed recollections, elements of the author's own personal process work their way out like slivers from the palm of the hand. The chapter, "All Artists Art Two-headed Calves," show how tension between opposing ways of knowing and working moves creative work forward. Unlikely connections generate tension and tension generates ideas. Intuition versus reason, empathy versus objectivity, letting go versus controlling, discovery versus planning -- these opposites press against each other to give creative work traction.
The author finds particular value in the tension between a closed and open focus. A storyteller must focus like a laser beam on the voice of the story rather than on effort to be creative or original. But, simultaneously, she must maintain a loose, passive, open receptivity to the universe of appropriate ideas.
Much as a bicyclist veers off the road when he looks down at wheels and gears, the writer loses her focus on the story when she looks at processes. Although she sees much out of the corner of the eye, the writer sees different processes than cognitive creativity theorists. And her process notes must support rather than disrupt focus on the story.
To offset the "cognitizing" of creativity, the author presents "creating's other side." The chapter, "The Ground: Wizards and Engineers," shows how the writer stands in relation to her work -- as servant, midwife, listener. The storyteller's work includes nurturing the qualities that allow the full flowering of intuition, inspiration, and insight.
The fruit of creativity is more than the finished story. It is the "feel" of the process -- transformation, surprise, potential, simple pleasure.
subject codes .THR.WRI

Petra Farias
Images of Women in Sport and Media: A Critical Look at Recurring Themes from 1920 to the Present
1999, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
This review of women in sport literature offers an historical summary from the 1920's through the present, focusing on the relationship between women in sport and the media. It identifies recurring patterns of progress and change as well as reversions and backlashes against females, who have opted to pursue sport. This examination focuses on sport, gender and media as social and cultural constructs created through institutionalized hierarchy rather than naturally occurring responses or differences.
Images of women in sport are examined as these perceptions manifest in their reflection of and creation by mediated culture. Because media's messages permeate our lives and have become virtually inescapable, their impact has become increasingly powerful. Media is no longer only a reflector of life and culture. It has become an interpreter and transformer of information and in effect, a manufacturer of values, ideals, and lifestyle. In the discussion of these concepts, the paper draws upon the work of sport sociologists, Susan Cahn, Susan Birrell, Cheryl Cole, critical thinker, George Sage, and cultural studies scholar, bell hooks. Identifying and deconstructing stereotypes that have plagued women in sport for decades and continue to diminish women's achievements will counter these idealized and mediated images. The authors included in this review are feminism and sport scholars, Mary Jo Kane, Nancy Theberge, Boutilier and SanGiovanni, and Zimmerman. I argue that gender, images of women, and feminine ideals are socially created constructs, formed in the context of power relationships between men and women.
Looking at women in sport through a socio-cultural constructionist lens is necessary: to achieve deeper meaning from seemingly superficial images, to evaluate the impact media depictions have on self and others, to see beyond the temporary, decontextualized image allowing history and personal experience to form real context, and to deconstruct, reinterpret, and rebuild media images and messages so that truth and myth become more decipherable. This paper traces the influence of sexism, homophobia, and legal mandates on the education and progress of women athletes. These purposes are key means to returning responsibility, control, and informed decision making ability back to the individual, whose image has been mediated to the point of distortion. Such a reinterpretation of socio-culturally constructed images of women in sport is important in establishing more truthful and human representations of women's selves and their lives.
subject codes .GEN

Christina Fasciana (Cawthon)
Meeting the Cognitive Goals of an Educational Plan for Gifted Second Graders
1999, December
Directed by Millman
In this synthesis I offer five sample lesson plans to show how a teacher can take knowledge of critical and creative thinking and teach it in a gifted inclusion classroom. Each lesson includes cognitive strategies and techniques from A. J. Binker's thirty-five dimensions of critical thinking or E. P. Torrance's summary of creative abilities. The goal of presenting these lessons is to help other gifted teachers understand cognitive strategies and how integrate them into lessons and meet the individual needs of every student.

In the chapters that precede the lesson plans I provide the personal context in which I developed them. I begin by explaining my own personal journey to becoming a teacher committed to applying critical and creative thinking in teaching and learning as well as in personal relationships. Studying in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program was central in this journey. After completing the course work for the Program I found a teaching position in Palm Beach County, Florida. Over the last four years I have taught a variety of primary grades in two different elementary schools. I now teach gifted students and English speaking students of other languages included with regular education student at the second grade level. The County's educational plan requires me to teach cognitive strategies to gifted students, but I teach them in some form to all my students. I believe that students who learn to use critical and creative thinking have a better chance of coping with the rapidly changing world and living peacefully in the future.
subject codes .ELE

Kevin Fay
Creative Thinking in Drawing
1998, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
This Synthesis Project traces the evolution of my visual representation experiences while in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program. The focus is placed on a culminating drawing experience that occurred prior to the writing of this Synthesis. From the drawing experience and the writing process, a construct of knowledge was built through cooperation between hands on work and abstract theoretical frameworks of creative thinking. After describing the role drawing played in my early life, I describe in detail my recent drawing experiences. I mention the rediscovery of my interest in drawing as a student in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program. This interest propelled me to delve deeper into the art and I enrolled in a drawing course offered through the UMass College of Arts and Sciences. The intensive drawing environment provided experience with the creative process and a body of work that became the focus of this Synthesis. Following that, I relate the evolution of my practice to two psychological constructs of creativity. The first, offered by Teresa Amabile, is from "The Social Psychology of Creativity: A Componential Conceptualization". I demonstrate my work from the drawing course to be a creative experience, in that it has embodied the three components of creativity outlined by Amabile. Examples of domain relevant skills and creativity relevant skills are provided along with narrative describing the task motivation necessary for creativity.
The other psychological construct of creativity is that of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's "flow", which he describes as a state of optimal experience. First, I demonstrate flow to be closely aligned with many of the concepts that embody the spirit of the Critical and Creative Thinking Program. Csikszentmihalyi outlines the flow experience as it is manifested in eight components of enjoyment. I then reflect on my process in relation to those components to illustrate how flow was attained.
In conclusion, I elaborate on the significance of creative thinking and the pursuit of the creative process for the evolution of the individual and humanity. Each of us is in a state of becoming and that process facilitated by creative thinking can yield the best results.
subject codes .ART

James Figler
Facilitating Creativity in Corporate Culture
1995, September
Directed by
This work was developed with the premise that a creative corporate culture can be a competitive weapon in the world market today. It postulates that unique corporate cultures do exist and explores their development and characteristics from an anthropological point of view. This work investigates tools and methods created to help facilitate creativity in corporate cultures. Multiple examples of creativity within corporate cultures are presented against the background of twelve key causal factors (Drennan1 1992). These creative episodes are all recognized by outside sources as unique and innovative, it'd fulfill the heuristic characteristics of creativity as defined by Amabile (1983).
This work purports that, although there is no direct correlation between creativity and profitability, the creative corporation intuitively has an advantage in today's marketplace.
The levels of organizational culture examined include assumptions, beliefs and values, patterns of behavior and artifacts. These are cross-referenced with key elements of organizational culture such as heroes, jargon, and management practices. The results are presented in a typology of the socially constructed concept of corporate culture.
Multiple tools to create a context from which to study and facilitate change in corporate culture are explored. Critical thinking is employed to understand the frame of reference in which each tool was created and to judge its value in facilitating change and creativity, in an existing environment.
A number of intervention models are compared and contrasted and the merits of each is explored. The transition planning model (Beckhard, 1987) is chosen to study the content of other available tools and methods because it allows the opportunity to examine culture from multiple anthropological viewpoints. It seeks to understand culture so that action can be taken, and implies that culture can be managed. It also allows for unlimited creativity, in the critical ideation stage. Finally, using Beckhard's model, available tools and methods are reviewed
for understanding corporate culture and facilitating creativity,' and innovation within that context.
subject codes .COR

Dory Fish
Finding Meaning Through Writing: A Personal Journey Into Writing Development Through Writing Workshops, Personal Experimentation, and Finding The Balance to Create Ideal Writing Environments and Communities With Elementary School Students
2003, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
Elementary education has evolved into a compartmentalized system where each academic subject is treated as a unit and filed away until the appropriate time to resurrect it. In a mad rush to the finish line, basic skills such as grammar and computation are prioritized over more all-encompassing skills such as thinking and problem solving. We need to find ways to incorporate the basic skills our students need with the more through provoking skills in ways that reassign the appropriate emphasis on each part of the whole.
My paper looks to the writing workshop method of writing instruction to establish classroom writing communities that foster development of the writer as an individual first and development of the products that writer creates second. In my paper I explore why writing is so important to a student's development. In the course of this exploration, a new definition of writing instruction emerges and begins to focus on the writing environment as a catalyst for good writers, and hence good writing. My paper offers both my personal journey into this new definition of writing and my research into writing and learning communities. My research allowed me to tackle questions such as why it is important to write, what it means to publish, and what are the best ways to sustain writing development as a writing instructor and writer.
Writing and thinking are intertwined. Good writing instruction leads to good thinking instruction. Show me a good writer, and I'll show you a good thinker. The ultimate measure of one's ability to succeed lies in their ability to think most effectively. The writing workshop's emphasis on the writer over the product takes us closer to the ideal of educating a whole person rather than educating to various, compartmentalized skills.
subject codes .WRL

Niles Flanders
Unexamined Consequences: Ideology, Critical Thinking, and the Reagan Revolution
1993, May
Directed by John R. Murray
In the winter of l992-93, the United States is suffering an economic and political paralysis which is the direct result of the policies of the Reagan Revolution. Hugh deficits and debts have limited the flexibility of Americans to cope with the serious problems of today's world. How did this happen and what can we do about it? What kind of thinking brought about the policies of the Reagan Presidency?
The terminology and theories of Richard Paul, found in his book Critical Thinking: What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World, provide a vehicle for examining the thinking used in the formulation of the Reagan policies. The first part of this thesis develops the premise that the ideology leading to the policies of the Reagan Revolution resulted from thinking dominated by both uncritical and sophistic (weak sense) critical thinking. The second part of the thesis states that it will require will, strength, and communicative power equal to that which established the Reagan Revolution to bring fair minded (strong sense) critical thinking to bear on the country's current situation, in order to mold a strong, stable economy.
Chapter l examines Paul's definitions of strong and weak sense critical thinking, along with uncritical thinking in order to analyze the development of President Reagan's ideology. Paul's theories on prejudice, including both positive (for something), as well as negative (against something), provide a frame of reference for viewing Reagan's ideology and actions. Chapter II considers Reagan's ideas in his own words, along with his background. Chapter III examines Reagan's ideology, actions, and policies.
Chapter IV, "What Might Have Been," includes the thoughts of Robert N Bellah and his associates in The Good Society and David Halberstam in The Next Century. Their ideas help to portray what might have been, along with a vision of the discipline needed to develop a future American society based on strong sense critical thinking.
subject codes .MSE

Ellen Fogarty
A Learning Style Approach to Curriculum Design
1999, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
Classroom instruction improves when teachers systematically assess and remodel lesson plans. One approach to remodeling is to use learning styles framework to review and rework curriculum in order to target specific learning style modalities.
This synthesis offers a literature review of learning style theory which identifies the goals of a learning style approach to instruction (Sternberg, 1994; Dunn, 1990); and, reviews and addresses difficulties flicing educators wishing to incorporate learning styles into curriculum (Curry, 1990; Snider, 1990; Horton and Oakland, 1997). Such difficulties include the validity and reliability of learning style research, the lack of a unified body of knowledge concerning the conceptualization of learning style, and the variety of learning style models available. I argue, despite criticisms, that learning styles provide a useful, systematic basis for remodelling lessons, and that systematic reexamination improves teaching quality and student learning through increased metacognitive awareness. Four different learning style models (Myers-Briggs, KoIb, 4MAT, and the Felder-Silverman Model, (ILS)) are introduced and examined.
Following the literature review, I present a case study based on the Felder-Silverman Model which examines the learning styles of two groups of at-risk youth in an urban, alternative high school diploma program. Results indicate no clearly dominant learning style for these two populations. However, trends exist which may have implications for educators wishing to use learning styles as a lens through which to evaluate and redesign curriculum. The group profile for these populations showed a majority of learners who are active, visual, sensing and sequential learners. By modifying Richard Paul's (1993) model for incorporating critical thinking skills into curriculum, I suggest a method for the critical review of lessons using learning styles. This synthesis concludes by offering an original, eight-component planning matrix. The planning matrix allows an educator to reflect on lessons to establish the learning styles all ready incorporated and those needing to be addressed. At this time, there is no quantitative means for assessing student "pre"' versus "post" learning style intervention for this method. A guide for teachers interested in remodelling their classes using the ILS is included as an appendix.
subject codes .LRN.TCE

Lauren Foley
"Who is a Scientist?": Effects of an Intervention to Change Students' Ideas about Science and Scientists
1992, May
Directed by Carol Smith
Advocates for improving science literacy have focused much attention on the negative impressions about science and scientists held by many Americans. The image of scientists as 'nerdy' bespectacled men in laboratories has been related by some researchers to people's lack of interest in pursuing science. This thesis analyzes one component of a program aimed at changing that stereotype.
The Science-By-Mail (tm) program at the Museum of Science in Boston was designed to give students a more inclusive image of scientists. Central to the program was the creation of pen-pal relationships between students in grades 4-9 with scientists who did not fit the stereotype. The correspondence was driven by a set of hands-on science challenges, which included a variety of experiments. The activities introduced students to science as an engaging process of critical thought and exploration.
To determine participants' images of scientists changed, an empirical study was performed. Pretest and posttest questionnaires, consisting of five questions related to student images of science and scientists, were distributed to all participants. Responses from all students who returned both components on the evaluation were matched to form a test population of 217 pair, and analyzed using series of statistical tests.
Only one of the five questions, "What does a scientist look like?" was analyzed. This question was seen as the most likely to elicit responses were evaluated to determine the number of exclusive indicators, such as "all scientists wear lab coats," as well as inclusive indicators, such as " a scientist looks like anyone."
The stereotype's existence before the intervention was confirmed. The average number of exclusive indicators decreased significantly from pretest to posttest, regardless of age or gender of subject, gender of pen-pal scientist, or number of correspondences exchanged. No single feature of the program could be isolated as necessary for producing change, but overall the data showed a positive shift in students' images of scientists. The results prompted questions for further investigations into the causes and effects of the stereotype of scientists.
subject codes .SCI.COM.CUL.TEC

Jennifer Forgues
Why are Fractions So Hard? Conquering Students Lack Of Comprehension Of Fractions
2003, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
Fractions have multiple roles in math: as a ratio of part to whole, as a measurement unit, and as an operator on other numbers. These roles, which have not been taught explicitly to students, have resulted in miscomprehension of fractions. Four seventh grade, from Roxbury Preparatory Charter School, were assessed by the author for their competencies in fraction understanding. This was determined through analysis of teacher created and standardized tests as well as personal interviews with each of the students. It was discovered that, while these students were able to follow the rules of fraction computation quite well, pervasive deficits were noted in their ability to apply fractions to problem solving situations. These deficits include: inability to choose a correct operation(s) to solve a problem; inappropriate comparing and ordering of fractions; and lack of understanding of the rules used in the fraction algorithms of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This is ascribed to the incomplete understanding of the roles a fraction can play and how fractions interact with other numbers in various contexts.
This synthesis presents a comprehensive set of standards and objectives the author has developed as a result of assessing students' difficulties with fractions. Standards were developed to address student miscomprehension, based on student data, analysis of literature, state frameworks, and goals set forth in the prior year's fraction unit. These standards will be taught through experiential learning, algorithmic understanding, application of fractions in word problems, and explanation of process and reasoning. Teaching colleagues of the author contributed to the creation of this plan by providing feedback on interview questions used with the four students and the standards developed through this synthesis. A result of this project is that other math teachers in the author's school will be trained in the teaching of fractions to counteract student misconceptions. Teachers will also support fraction understanding in their own curricula, and future math curricula will integrate the basics of fraction understanding into the sixth grade math curriculum.
subject codes .SCI

Ivy Frances
The View Finder: Discovering My Artist Path Through Photography
2004, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
This is a personal narrative of how I applied Critical and Creative Thinking skills to photography and, in the process, found my artistic self. As a young girl, I was an emerging artist under the tutelage of creative parents. I took photographs of my family and of the beautiful landscape where we lived. Tragedy struck my child's world twice; first, when my father died, and a second time when developers destroyed the natural areas where I played. These events shut down my inner awareness, stunted my growth as a risk taker and the artist in me went dormant.
The Critical and Creative Thinking program has opened up a new universe through a progression of learning about my personality traits, thinking dispositions, and multiple intelligences. I learned that I was a convergent and divergent thinker, a problem-solver and that I was extremely capable of transferring information from one domain to another. My metacognition, now activated, monitored my thought process and helped me initiate critical and creative thinking. I applied the CCT techniques and thinking process to photographing the land and people of Scituate. I followed a process-cycle of creating a vision, conducting research, applying the research, and reflecting on the results in comparison with the vision. I became more consciously self-aware so that I better understood my actions. My self was reflected and revealed in my photographs. My photographic project was now less about Scituate, and more about my sense of self. My creative self, along with my skills as a critical thinker was re-emerging.
I have learned that, at any given time, I may be in my interpersonal self, empathizing and collaborating, or in my naturalist self, observing, studying, and integrating. I may be behind the camera conceptualizing, altering perspectives and images. Or maybe I am just being introspective, reflecting and dreaming. After all, ". . . creative persons are characterized not so much by single traits, as by their ability to operate through the entire spectrum of personality dimensions" (Csikszentmihalyi 1999, 331).
I am a photographer, and an artist, this personal narrative is about my journey of self discovery through the application of Critical and Creative Thinking.
subject codes.RPN.ART
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Mary Frangie
My CCT Guidebook: Keeping The Critical and Creative Thinking Momentum Alive
2004, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
Have you ever struggled through something, feeling like a fish out of water for most of it, just to find out in the end that being a part of it was the best decision you ever made? This is how I describe my CCT experience. Through this practitioner's narrative, I journey through my childhood struggles with cluttered thinking to my adult pursuit to "think better". Finding validation for my intelligence improved my confidence levels and my overall quality of life. Much of my internal feeling of validation came through understanding my thinking styles from multiple intelligence theories. Through this understanding I have been able to shift away from seeing what is wrong with my thinking to making the most with what is right about my thinking. My strongest aptitude areas are interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence while my weakest areas are in logical/mathematical and verbal/linguistic intelligence. This new awareness changed the way I value myself and also gives me a new appreciation for the thinking and communication styles of others.
The second part of this hybrid synthesis project is a sourcebook containing critical and creative thinking tools - My CCT Guidebook. The handbook is my endeavor to retain and use some of the tools and knowledge I have been exposed to through CCT and to support my thinking after I have left the program. My CCT Guidebook is a collection of information - concepts, thinking tools, graphic organizers and strategies - that impacted me or helped transform my thinking. It is meant to be a reminder of information and processes I have already learned and will assist in keeping the critical and creative spirit alive within me.
subject codes.TCE

Kelly Freeman
Inviting Critical and Creative Thinking into the Classroom
1999, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
In the field of education, there is much discussion around the subtleties of teaching critical and creative thinking. Surrounding the controversy are questions such as, are certain skills are subordinate to others, and can best practices be fully described. Amidst this continuing discussion, most students are not being taught the necessary, fundamental skills that will allow them to become good thinkers; nor is curriculum being aligned to explicitly and systematically include thinking skills. In the interim however, teachers can become aware of what is involved in critical and creative thinking and the dispositions, skills, strategies and environment that foster good thinking. Armed with this knowledge and understanding, teachers can mindfully and skillfully implement critical and creative thinking as part of the regular, mandated curriculum.
My concern with this issue, along with my belief that critical and creative thinking are crucial to reaching one's full potential, impelled me to review various conceptions of critical and creative thinking by leading practitioners in the fields of education, philosophy and psychology. The writers include Paul, Ennis, Davis, Tishman, Starko and Marzano among others. From the literature I present a characterization of critical and creative thinking, a succinct description of the necessary dispositions for thinking in this manner, along with the skills involved. I also propose a number of strategies for instruction geared toward the development of critical and creative thinking. Based on the literature review, I have distilled eight pervasively significant principles that teachers can employ to invite and implement critical and creative thinking in their classrooms regardless of grade level, subject area or the particular frameworks that dictate teaching. The principles, presented in the form of a practical handbook as my original contribution, are intended to provide teachers with knowledge and understanding of critical and creative thinking and the essential elements that sustain and propel such thinking.
subject codes .TCE

Chiara Frenquellucci
Teaching Foreign Languages in Context: Intermediate Italian and Critical Thinking
1993, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Declining student interest in the study of foreign languages in U.S. universities has prompted calls for reform. This thesis proposes to enhance the teaching of intermediate Italian through the integration of critical thinking skills and innovative techniques of language instruction. Implementing such a program requires shifts in both content and teaching methods. Language (both native and foreign) is not a set of detached components, but rather a tool for communication of perceptions and ideas through meaningful exchanges. The learning of a language should fulfill its promise of proficiency and be a congenial opportunity for success in learning.
Exploiting the natural connection between language and thought is beneficial for two reason: first, it aids the acquisition of the target language, as well as improving "verbal" skills in the students' own language; secondly, it enriches the students' intellectual repertoire in both related and unrelated fields. Thinking skills are universal and can be applied to a variety of situations, including personal growth outside of academic development.
This thesis presents a background in critical thinking philosophies and classification of thinking skills, and in second language acquisition theories in order to create an alternative intermediate Italian curriculum. The immediate purpose of such a curriculum is to enhance students' linguistic and thinking proficiency through self-expression and communication with others. The long-term goal is to present language within its larger context to make it transferable to real-world situations.
Five sample lessons are developed in this thesis, each centered on particular critical thinking skill,. Students are involved in defining applying and transferring the skills to many contexts. Each lesson draws from different critical thinking theories and pedagogical models, encourages students to experiment with language, and helps them to express meaning in its most complex forms.
Examples of written and oral exercises and evaluation criteria to assess student progress and overall lesson effectiveness have also been included. Even though intermediate Italian instruction is the main focus of this thesis, the ideas presented are applicable to the teaching of any intermediate level foreign language course.
subject codes .LAN.TCE

David Frias
Fighting Traffic Congestion in Metropolitan Phoenix by Making Public Transportation a Success
2007, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
The past two years in the Critical and Creative Thinking Graduate Program have been a time of learning and life changing experiences. I found the confidence to make a career change and gained the knowledge and tools necessary to study the complex problem of traffic congestion and attempt to solve it by utilizing public transportation. My plan to move to Phoenix, Arizona in 2009 motivated me not only to learn about the area and its attempts to fight urban sprawl and traffic congestion, but also to attempt to find solutions to these problems. I utilized creative thinking and critical thinking skills to understand the complexity of the problem, analyze the problem, and make suggestions that could help solve the problem. This synthesis project explores the rise of urban sprawl due to federal, state, and local policies regarding urban planning, and how urban sprawl led to a decline of public transportation usage and an increase in automobile dependence which in turn spawned traffic congestion. Traffic congestion problems have led to a loss of economic productivity, increased pollution, increased dependence on foreign oil, and the rise of health issues across America. By studying the current solutions being attempted across the United States and in Phoenix, I was able to understand what is working, what isn't, and why. Utilizing my critical thinking skills and creativity, I make suggestions on how Metropolitan Phoenix can reduce traffic congestion by promoting public transportation and making it a success. These suggestions attempt to make public transportation a success in the area by using smart growth in urban planning, improving the existing transit system and ensuring future success, as well as instituting fee structures that will discourage citizens from utilizing the automobile as often as they do. The solutions I propose would involve the cooperation of federal, state, local officials as well as private business, and ultimately, the individual citizen. Undertaking this synthesis project not only educated me on the issues at hand, but I hope the product will educate the reader on the complexity of the problem and motivate them to become involved in trying to solve it.
subject codes .SOC
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Audrey Friedman
Personality and Problem Solving: An Exploration Using a Computerized, Ill-Defined Problem
1991, May
Directed by ?
subject codes .THR

Bertha Lucia Fries Martinez
The Globally Responsible Leader
2008, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
In recent years there has been a dramatic expansion of what I call Global Responsibility (GR)-a new dynamic force for change in business, government, and other organizations. GR integrates into one inclusive model the emergent ("fragmented") models generally known as: Business Ethics, Corporate Citizenship, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Eco-Efficiency, Ethics and Development, Sustainable Development, The Best Company to Work For, and others. This unprecedented change, rather than spearheaded internally by management, is pioneered externally by the stakeholders of organizations-including consumers, investors, media, activists and concerned citizens. They are progressively putting more pressure on organizational leaders to change both how companies make their profits and what they do with them. There is an unprecedented need for leaders who are profoundly aware, grounded on strong values, and extremely innovative and effective in creating sustainable development and promoting the common good in today's world.
The purpose of my synthesis is to suggest a general framework and a process for designing, implementing, and assessing initiatives for developing key attributes of globally responsible leaders of every type of organizations. An extensive literature has emerged suggesting a variety of leadership models. A common thread in this literature is the tendency to identify, develop and enhance a leader's attributes, or those personal and intrinsic qualities that make an effective leader. These leadership attributes are about: what the leader IS (character, personal qualities, values, motives); what the leader KNOWS (knowledge and skills); and what the leader DOES (style, competencies, behaviors).
As existing models do not, in my view, fully satisfy the requirements of the globally responsible leader that I envision, I suggest a responsible leadership model. It is built on Ulrich et al's model and my personal observations and professional experiences in management consulting. My framework emphasizes a set of core attributes that I believe the GR leader must have. These relate to: four Domains of Reflection (Space, Time, Ethics, Global Responsible Citizenship), and four Domains of Action (Defining the strategic direction, Mobilizing the individual commitment, Building individual and organizational capacity, and Modeling the new leader). I suggest also a general strategy for the development of the attributes of the GR leader. It is composed of two main processes: a customized face-to-face learning process and a massive online social networking process.
In my epilogue I draw a parallel between the artistic process and the thesis writing process, and reflect upon my emotions and experience of "walking" through the writing of the Globally Responsible Leader.
subject codes.COR.FRP
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Cynthia Fusco
The Reference Connection: Teaching Thinking Skills Within the Library Reference Interview
1991, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Library research is a thinking process composed of discrete, identifiable critical and creative thinking skills. These skills may be taught in school libraries as part of the reference interview, a conversation that occurs between librarians and student researchers. In order for this to take place, it is first necessary to understand the political importance of the definitional problems associated with the instructional role of the school librarian, to identify the steps in the research process and their related thinking skills, and to acknowledge the cognitive and affective aspects of the research process.
School librarians who wish to include teachings part of their dues often face a problem of role definition. Simply stated, they must convince the teachers and administrators of their school systems that this is a valid role by lobbying for their cause and demonstrating the effectiveness of their teaching expertise. One solution to these political and pedagogical problems is the deliberate construction of a library reference interview integrated with discrete critical and creative thinking skills. The success of this interview depends upon the librarian's own clear understanding of the steps in the research process and the identification of appropriate thinking skills. It also relies heavily upon the librarian's assessment of the student's abilities, interests, and attitudes used to determine the course of the interview and to identify the thinking skills required by the research project that the student wishes to undertake.
This thesis concludes with the presentation of model dialogues. These examples are composites draws from actual experience and are designed to illustrate the practical application of critical and creative thinking theory to library research.
subject codes .ELE

Peter Galeno
A Portfolio Model for Teaching Writing and Thinking
1996, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
The college composition course is increasingly viewed as a pivotal course in fostering in students the skills they will need for meaningful participation in the discourse of the academy. This course is often the students' initiation into an academic environment that emphasizes the
significance of the written word. Because of the nature of teaching the abstract and elusive subject of writing, the course presents significant challenges for many composition instructors.
This thesis focuses on the development of a student writing portfolio that provides a powerful means of addressing these issues. The work required to complete the portfolio fosters the students' transition from their original diction to the discourse that meets the standards of their academic community. The portfolio process does so by developing the critical thinking dispositions and abilities needed to succeed in the academic environment. Through the work required to complete the portfolio, students develop the dispositions of self-awareness, intrinsic motivation, and the openness to reflect on their writing process and product. The portfolio process shifts the locus of instruction from the teacher to the students and is a concrete means for students to understand the evolution of their thoughts as they make the rhetorical choices that shape their written discourse.
The first chapter of this thesis establishes the general context within which this portfolio model was implemented. This is followed by an analysis of recent cognitive theories of writing as related to writing. Through a discussion of the works of Richard Paul and Robert Ennis, the third chapter of this thesis presents the critical thinking framework that informs the curriculum. The fourth chapter describes the portfolio model and discusses the type of in-class instruction required to prepare students to complete the portfolio. The final chapter discusses the impact of the portfolio on students, faculty, and the institution. The portfolio proved to be a powerful tool in creating many benefits to students, faculty, and the institution. Most significantly, the portfolio was important in bringing about a cultural change, one that recognizes the importance of developing student writing through an interdisciplinary
approach to establish writing across the curriculum.
subject codes .WRL

Rebecca Garnett
Family Resemblance: A Study of Linguistic Conformity Within Family Systems
1991, December
Directed by John R. Murray
This thesis reports the results of an empirical study designed to test two hypotheses from the early psychiatric work of C. G. Jung: first, the existence of a "family disposition" toward the word association test (WAT), and second, the theory that there is interference between the "thinking" and the "feeling" functions in an individual's cognitive processing. The experiment involved 52 normal subjects from 15 families, ranging in age from 12 to 65. Subjects were tested using an association instrument adapted from the WAT developed by Jung (Jung, l973). Response commonalty was examined along several dimensions: identical verbal response, identical category response, and identical reaction type. Subjects were found to have 20% verbal commonalty and 34-38% categorical commonalty within family units. Comparison of relatives responses to those of non-related individuals using a Spearman rank order correlation test on classified responses, yielded an average correlation figure of .29 for related and .25 for unrelated pairs of individuals; this difference seemed too small to support the hypothesis, but no formal test of significance was performed. Sample size proved to small to test the significant of response pattern redundancy within families. In the second part of the experiment, 38 subjects completed he deductive logic section of the Ross Test of Higher Cognitive Processes, and their error rate was compared with their rate of predicative responses on the WAT. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation was .57, indicating a moderately strong correlation between preference for predication, a characteristic of the "feeling" function, and difficulty with deductive logic, a process of ;the "thinking" function. A theoretical chapter traces the evolution of Jung's cognitive theories from his early word association experiments (Jung, l973) to the development of his functional system of psychological typology (June, l97l). 37 tables, l2 figures.
subject codes .LAN.THR

Ann Gazzard
The Role of Precollege Philosophy in Education
1984, January
Directed by Robert Swartz
subject codes .MOR

Maryann Gilbert-Lovell
The Foundations of Morality
1993, May
Directed by John R. Murray
Beginning in preschool, moral education should provide children with a foundation for making good and reasonable decisions as well as the motivation to act with integrity. In a complex and changing world, figuring out what is good or what is the 'right' thing to do is often difficult, and decisions often require highly developed critical and creative thinking skills and deep motivation. A moral person arrives at decisions concerning what to do, how to live, and what to believe through reflective and reasonable thinking. Critical and creative thinking skills and dispositions enable a moral person to arrive at a clear conception of the world and his or her place in it. Realizing that something must be done and figuring out what to do is only half the battle; it is often just as difficult to do what we know is right. Thus, integrity is essential to the moral character. The demands that the world will someday place on children will challenge the ideals and sense of responsibility that are central to their integrity.
Relationships in early childhood form the basis of personal standards. This basis is then augmented and modified throughout life. A young child's preschool provides a unique setting where the child interacts with many different people. Early childhood educators have a great deal of influence over the environment in which these interactions take place. Consequently, teachers can influence the foundation the child construes from his or her experience. Any teacher who purports to teach the whole child has an obligation to consider and enhance the moral education which is already going on in her classroom. In order to' set appropriate goals for moral education, the teacher needs to consider the fundamental questions 'What is morality?', 'How does the development of critical and creative thinking skills and dispositions affect moral development? and what motivates morality?'
This thesis attempts to answer these questions with a synthesis of diverse views and findings from leading experts and researchers concerned with the moral life of children and concludes with a few recommendations for preschool teachers who would like to translate the findings into practice.
subject codes .MOR

Alan Goldman
Addressing the Inadequacies of Information Available on the Internet: The Prospect for a Technical Solution
1999, June
Directed by Arthur Millman
In the past ten years the Internet has been the carrier and transmitter of vast amounts of information. Most of it has never been subjected to peer review or even casual review and has therefore been the source of misinformation. Additionally, there is need for more researchers to utilize critical thinking techniques of evaluating the credibility of sources. This paper chronicles my critical and creative thinking processes and results regarding these three areas of the information problems that are prevalent on the Internet.
The first area is the problem of bad, biased or incorrect information including hoaxes and scams. I used critical thinking techniques to analyze these areas to provide a basis to define a problem to be solved.
The second area of concern is the critical thinking process that should be used to evaluate the reliability of resources and the credibility of information. This process can help prevent the Internet user from being a victim of bad or biased information.
The third area deals with similar problems of information that were solved both inside and outside the Internet that could provide bases for solutions. Here, I used critical thinking in regard to other possible outcomes. I discuss what other industries such as consumer product review companies and academia have done to deal with similar problems. I take a look at Underwriters Laboratories and others who devised systems that verified the quality of product as well as research methods that assure quality of information.
I developed a conceptual framework for a software-based solution that can help I assure that high quality information is presented on the Internet. I used a process of divergent and convergent thinking to arrive at a best solution. The solution allows for those who use the Internet data to leave information with or without leaving evaluation comments that describe the quality and usefulness of what was presented. The results of this user feedback are not only available to others who search for this information, but it can be presented in a prioritized form from most reviewed to least reviewed thus saving researchers time and effort while assuring a better quality of information.
subject codes .SCI

Auta Goncalves
1997, September
Directed by
subject codes

Bernice Gordon
Explicit Integration of Critical Thinking into Content Area Instruction
1991, September
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Educators have acknowledged the need for the development of critical thinking skills in students. While most students are able to complete basic curriculum, requirements, teachers have found that many of them are unable to transfer skills to other content areas or beyond the academic environment. Consequently, the last decade has witnessed the rise of carefully planned programs designed to instill strong critical thinking skills in students. Many of these programs are narrow in their focus, while others use a more comprehensive and practical approach, namely integrating critical thinking skills into content area instruction. The Curriculum Development Project presented in his thesis endorses the latter approach and is written for middle and high school age students.
The supporting foundation for this thesis is based primarily on Costa's Theory of Metacognition, Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence and Perkins' Thinking Frames. The thesis centers around three model lessons which contain the elements essential to a successfully critical thinking program. Explicit statements of skill and content area objectives are established and a thinking motivator introduces each lesson. A metacognitive component of planning, monitoring and evaluating progress is designed to enable students to assume responsibility and accountability for their progress.
The teaching process is clearly described in the model lessons. Emphasis is placed on attitudes and dispositions which the teacher must demonstrate in order to create a non-judgmental atmosphere in which critical thinking is fostered.
Various methodologies such as group work, collaborative learning and class discussions are described, as are the evaluative methods used to assess student learning. The critical element of transfer of skills to other contexts and life situations is emphasized. Appendices which follow the lessons offer cohesive definitions of the relevant terminology.
This thesis acknowledges that teachers must re-evaluate their roles in the classroom, so that they shift the emphasis from being lecturers to facilitators or mediators, using their knowledge and expertise as resource people who model the kind of thinking behavior that they desire from students. In so doing they enable students to become independent, reflective thinkers, with a sense of empowerment over their present and future lives.
subject codes .MSE

Abigail Grainda
At The Heart of It All: A Self-Esteem Curriculum For Students With Learning Disabilities
2004, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
Students with learning disabilities will inevitably face numerous challenges in their educational experience. Many of these challenges will be academic in nature but there is a greater challenge that is at the heart of it all- the development of self-esteem. The development of self-esteem is at the heart of all other challenges and experiences. It includes the feeling of security, accurate self-hood and self-knowledge, developing strong affiliations with others, having mission, and recognizing personal competence. These five components are the foundation elements of self-esteem and are essential in the learning process within school environment. These elements are explored in detail in this synthesis.
Using critical and creative thinking tools as a conduit for self-esteem development, I have developed five original and creative lessons to be used with first and second grade elementary students. Each lesson incorporates aspects of critical and creative thinking, such as metacognition, learning climate, cooperative learning, and free writing, with sequential activities addressing one of the five foundation elements of self-esteem. The lessons are written for elementary educators and are engaging, easy to implement, and flexible. These lessons include original ideas and materials, as well as extensions for further use and literature recommendations.
As I am a special education teacher, I have a professional interest in this topic. My teaching experiences allowed me to infuse this research with reality. Having personally struggled with self-esteem, I have a personal interest as well. The Critical and Creative Thinking program helped me regain clarity in my purpose as an educator, and encouraged me to explore my creative abilities. In doing this, I have produced five well constructed lessons, with numerous activities. I am eager to bring this curriculum fully into my own classroom and to continue my work as an influential and reflective practitioner.
subject codes.SPE

Chris Gralton
Team Leadership Approaches for Corporate Project Managers
2002, August
Directed by Steve Schwartz
The study of Critical and Creative Thinking (C&CT) methods introduced me to a number of new approaches and tools that have vital and practical applications for today's corporate team leaders. The primary purpose of my paper and the Genuity Inc. case example, is to demonstrate how these C&CT approaches and tools can be used by corporate team leaders to motivate, direct and lead their teams.
Towards this end I have organized my paper into two major sections. 1) In the first, I lay the groundwork by defining the challenges facing today's project managers and the cross-functional teams they lead. 2) In the second section, I introduce and discuss C&CT concepts for analyzing and defining thinking styles of team members, and how this knowledge can be used by project managers for more effective leadership.
The concepts covered will help team leaders address the wide range of challenges they face today. These concepts include the conceptual blocks to better problem solving, including common barriers to creative thinking, cultural blocks, emotional blocks, perceptual blocks, and intellectual blocks, as described by James Adams in Conceptual Blockbusting, a Guide to Better Ideas. (1974)
subject codes.COR

Lillian Greeley
Philosophical Spacing (PS): It's Function and Composition in the Philosophical Dialectics of Matthew Lipman's Philosophical Novels for Children
1989, May
Directed by John Murray
Philosophical Spacing (PS), a phenomenon found in the philosophic dialectic, is defined as a space or break from the formal work of the philosophical dialectic, and is suspected to be a necessary interval which permits higher order cognitive processing to take place so that the analytical work of the dialectic can develop. An example of modern philosophical dialectics, the philosophical novels for children by Matthew Lipman, was analyzed to study the structural and contextual nature of PS in order to complement a study in progress of the philosophical dialectics of the Earliest Socratic Dialogues. Using a structural analysis of 21 randomly chosen philosophical dialectic, PS was found to occur with consistent regularity in a majority of the segment structures of these philosophical dialectics. Using a contextual analysis of 147 randomly chosen PSs to study its qualitative composition, PS was found to be comprised of positive and negative synergetic combinations of elements, of which 7 were identified. An interrater reliability test, scored with Cohen's Kappa statistic, confirms the study's reliability. It was found that a sample of contemporary dialectics, the philosophical dialectics in the philosophical novels for children by Matthew Lipman, confirms the existence and use of PS in the philosophical dialectic.
subject codes .THR

Cynthia Greenwood
Using Hands-On Manipulatives to Teach Problem Solving
1996, September
Directed by John R. Murray
As educators we share a link with the classic story of the "Velveteen Rabbit", as we also seek what is real. In education "real" is what holds meaning for the students and connects their world to the world of the classroom. As teachers we continually ask for the students' active
participation, involvement and commitment to the learning task, but too often we teach only from the textbook. Classroom tasks that do go beyond textbook mastery may spark the students' interest, but sometimes appear to have no link to the reality of the students' world. Cognitive research reminds educators of the importance of making learning connections as a means of preventing knowledge from becoming inert.
This thesis proposes a model that attempts to offer students a curriculum that's 'real' for the students. The model emphasizes the critical and creative thinking skills used in problem solving, while it draws on the strengths of two programs, problem based learning and LEGO Dacta bricks. The problem based learning model stresses the problem finding component of
the problem solving process. and the LEGO Dacta emphasizes the solution finding and solution testing phase. Problem based learning begins with offering the students an ill-structured,
researchable problem to solve. The students' goals are to determine what information would be needed to define and ultimately generate a solution. Since the problem finding phase in problem based learning offers many, varied approaches to the problem, the students may define the problem in a way that is unique to their point of view. This differs from the traditional problem solving approach, in which the students are given a well-defined problem. By allowing the students to determine the problem to be explored, they are able to assume ownership of the problem. LEGO Dacta bricks are one of basic building toys of children. Introducing building blocks into the problem solving process combines the world of problem solving with the students' world of play. The students are more eager participants in the process, as they can formulate a concrete model to test and evaluate their solutions.
The goals of this curriculum are three-fold: 1) to have the students become more involved in the learning task; 2) to teach the students the steps classroom to their world; 3) to give the students an environment that will foster self-directed learning.
subject codes .TCE

Dianne Gregory
Writing Toward Understanding
1988, September
Directed by
Writing can be a way to learn. If a writer focuses attention intently on a designated subject, she will learn what she knows about that subject. If she writes about that subject, new connections can form between related bits of information drawn from the writer's mind as she works toward a particular writing goal. The purposeful activity of transferring ideas from the mind to the page can lead a writer to a keener understanding of those ideas through their formulation into language. The unskilled writer, as well as the professional, has an array of strategies available to cultivate the germ of an original idea into a clear representation on the page.
Is it possible to break down the seemingly simpe process of transferring thoughts to the page into distinguishable, discrete components? If discrete components can be formulated, can we then act within these components to guide students to improve understanding through their writing? These are the key questions addressed in this thesis.
subject codes .TCE

Joanne Grenier
The Journey
1996, December
Directed by
Reflecting on my growth as a teacher, a critical thinker, a student, a parent, and a spouse, I have compiled here a record of my efforts to improve my classroom, school, and district by implementing knowledge and strategies gained in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program. In the reflective process, I also became aware of how my involvement in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program impacted me. It is not a journey a person can make without encountering change in oneself and one's perspectives. This journey traces the many opportunities I pursued to infuse the principles of the Critical and Creative Thinking Program into our district as we established a new vision, set new standards and evolved through a paradigm shift.
subject codes.THR

Karen Guillette
1997, September
Directed by
subject codes

Jeanne Hammond
Facilitating a Learning Work Environment Through Teamwork Strategies: One Nurse Manager's Journey
2003, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
Teamwork is the process that occurs when team members work together to achieve mutually agreed upon goals and are mutually accountable for the results. In search of strategies to promote teamwork in nursing, I embarked on a journey of professional development to develop the skills necessary to become an effective facilitator of teamwork. My exploration included review of current literature and participation in experiential workshops in addition to a number of CCT courses. I examined the current literature on shared vision through focused conversations, building of a new work relationship model, the dialogue process, role modeling and mentoring. I chronicled my reflective experiences and insight from participating in the workshops as part of my quest to create a positive work environment through teamwork. The guiding principles and values I have adopted as a foundation for effective teamwork are incorporated in a series of mini-workshop sessions developed for presentation to work groups in order to foster a positive learning work environment.
(Full Text)
subject codes.FRP.MED

Kristen Hanks
Creating a Life of Art: a Personal Journey Towards Creative Freedom
2004, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
This paper is a journey through my life as a Creator, from early childhood to the present. As I have moved through the process of writing my creative history, I have been able, for the first time, to take an introspective, reflective look at who I am as a person and an artist/creator. Using skills introduced to me in the Critical And Creative Thinking Program, it has been possible for me to undertake the task of confronting my past, my present and my future.
My journey towards creative freedom begins in early childhood as I struggle with being a creative person in a world that only seems to value certain forms of expression. From there I move on to high school and college, astonishingly creative yet confusing times. I begin questioning my future and wonder why I cannot conceive of defining a career for myself. When you feel creative and are passionate about all kinds of Art, what do you DO? Struggling with this question and internalizing negative messages about artists and creators seems to define this period in my life. Taking a look back I am able to see for the first time some of the blocks to my own creativity and its progression.
After college I eagerly venture into the "real world" and all my deepest fears about being a creative person begin to surface. Will I ever "make it" or actually find a career in a creative field? Maybe I need to see what else is out in there in the way of a "real" job. The moment I head down this path, I abandon my creative passions of writing poetry and connecting with my inner artist. For a time, this vital part of who I am falls by the wayside and I am not sure what steps to take to reclaim it - I know that I need help. By some providence I find the CCT graduate program and I begin another amazing journey: the reclaiming of my creative self.
Utilizing skills introduced to me in my CCT courses, I am able to begin excavating my past, present and future as a person who desires to be an artist and a creative person for life. Free-writing, strategic personal planning, and risk-taking are some of the tools that aid in my creative re-birth. Through the meta-cognitive process of critical and creative thinking, I am able to envision my life in a way that I never have before. I delve into my past to unlock blocks to my creativity, I recognize first-hand the importance of community in my life, and I allow myself to voice hidden dreams and to see them as possibilities. Finally I am able to reach a point where I can say, with conviction: I AM AN ARTIST and whatever I end up doing in my life, creating will be central and vital to whatever I choose.
subject codes.RPN.ART
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Peg Harbert
Introducing Problem Solving through Literature at the Elementary Level
1989, September
Directed by Schwartz
There has been much publicity the past few years, regarding students' lack of basic skills, their inability to think clearly, and their poor use of problem solving strategies. To focus on this need, the following program has been designed to help elementary teachers introduce problem solving in an organized manner adding very little, if any extra material to the curriculum.; The program aims to help students solve problems, critically, creatively, and systematically.
Problem solving was chosen as the target area since the skills and strategies used are closely related to those used in reading comprehension, answering questions logically, and general good thinking. The basic approach stems from E. Paul Torrance's, "Future Problem Solving Process", (Torrance, l972); however, it has been modified to incorporate eight stages, thus making problem solving easier for teachers to introduce to elementary students. In order for such a program to succeed, it was assumed the following criteria would have to be met:
l) Students would have a definite starting point.
2) The problem could fit into the curriculum with a minimum amount of modification.
3) Problems would move from the concrete to the abstract, from the well-defined to the complex.
In order for teachers to utilize this thesis easily, the format and lesson plans are included, as is a description of a two day workshop used to introduced the program to the instructors. The rationale behind the program, a selected review of current literature in its area and a presentation of the general strategies used for effective problem solving are presented. The first lesson in each stage reveals how the program can be integrated into the present curriculum without adding substantial new material. The second lesson for each stage reveals how the program can be adapted to teach problem solving within the realm of a specific teaching unit. Both lessons contain the same goals. objectives, and strategies: therefore, with the completion of either set of lessons, instructors should feel comfortable teaching in this manner and students should be on their way to becoming independent problem solvers.

subject codes .ELE

Michelle Hardy
Training Teaching Assistants In Theory And Methods: The Next Professors Of Biology
2006, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
The purpose of this synthesis is twofold: to review the traditional teaching methods used to teach biology to undergraduates and compare them to the constructivist methods found in the literature. As the name implies, constructivism is an approach to teaching and learning based on the assumption that knowledge is the result of mental construction. After providing evidence that constructivist teaching methods are well suited to learning biology, this synthesis will discuss instructor training and classroom practices. Teaching assistants (TAs) are likely to be effective initiators of constructivist strategies since they commonly have the most contact with biology students. These methods are easily introduced into the laboratory where few resources are needed to implement the tenets of constructivism: problem-based learning, project based learning, peer instruction, and self-evaluation. The laboratory is currently used for the purpose of teaching students to use equipment and techniques that validate the discoveries of others. Since the laboratory environment is physically more conducive to active, student-centered learning and the TAs are the primary instructors found there, the conclusion is that TAs should be trained to use the primary aspects of constructivism before they teach in the laboratory. Teaching tools and lessons proven to help biology students are presented before concluding with some personal insights experienced while writing this paper.
subject codes .SCI

Alice Harrigan
1999, June
Directed by
subject codes

Anne Harrington
Teaching Critical and Creative Thinking Skills as Part of the Technical Communications Curriculum
1989, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
I incorporated critical thinking instruction in the writing curriculum by using three writing projects: journal writing, a policy paper on AIDS, and an assignment to evaluate grammar checkers. In their journal writing students both generated and evaluated ideas. In the AIDS project, they reinforced these convergent and divergent thinking skills within the context of a real-world issue. For the software project, students practiced thinking skills in an arena that was more technical and objective, but in which they were evaluating fundamental writing criteria. These diverse assignments, based on a philosophically compatible approach to the teaching of writing, helped students develop critical and creative thinking skills along with content knowledge and effective written expression.
subject codes .TCE.WRL.MED

Maho Hatano
Recovery and Discovery to Become a Balanced Thinker-And Beyond
2007, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
Finding creativity was my good fortune. I changed, developed thinking skills, and became a balanced being through my time in the Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) Program. Now I know what to listen to and what not to listen to. I know how to nurture and heal myself. CCT is not just a graduate program. It is a self-help advisor or personal development coordinator, so to speak, so students find what they really want to do in their lives and be ready to do what they want to do after they leave CCT. In CCT, I overcame my creativity blocks, acknowledged grief, asked what I really want to do in my life, and found new interests. I confronted a self who had been very critical yet seeking harmony. I solved my struggles by seeking positives within myself by listening to my creative voices. I just needed to "believe" that my works were not as bad as I had thought. This synthesis is a written record of my learning chain: creativity, death and dying, healing methods, harmony maintenance, and a believing exercise. This sequence of my discovering more about myself is a process of recovery from my negative experiences in the past. And more importantly, this sequence of my learning chain will keep adding up by learning and experiencing even as I leave CCT. CCT has given me a method of how to keep moving forward and enrich my life more and more. Creativity is a ticket to enter a happier life.
subject codes .RPN

Bill Hayes
Critical Thinking through Literature: A Dialogue Teaching Model
1990, September
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson / Wanda Teays
Many traditional approaches to teaching literature depend on lecturing and asking pointed or leading questions which require correct answers. Through such lessons have their value, they do not engage students in earnest and thoughtful discussions of literature. Such methods may be useful for reviewing material, but they are not sufficient to foster critical thinking.
The Dialogue Teaching Model evolves in eight phases. It allows students to respond to literature at their own level of understanding by giving students the opportunity to interpret readings on their own. Using a dialogue approach, the teacher has students make judgments or decision about their reading which they must explain and defend during a class discussion. The discussion allows students to test the soundness of their decisions by comparing their arguments to those of others. In a later phase of the lesson, students reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of their interpretations. The teacher facilitates the learning process by guiding the discussion and by helping students examine their own thinking. After the dialogue has been completed students may maintain or revise their initial decisions, depending on how well they were able to defend their positions.
Evaluation is an ongoing process in the Dialogue Teaching Model, since the teacher observes and assesses students during the dialogue and reflection phases of the lesson. Students also demonstrate their knowledge and improve their skills through writing and/or speaking assignments at the end of the lesson. Evaluation is viewed as part of the learning process and is not limited to a testing procedure.
The Dialogue Teaching Model gives students the opportunity to become more active learners. By considering a number of different viewpoints, students can develop a deeper understanding of both literature and critical thinking . Students are not told what to think: they decide for themselves through discourse and reflection. In the process of teaching literature and critical thinking, the Dialogue Teaching Model encourages effective speech, attentive listening, improved writing skills, and autonomy of thought.
subject codes .WRL

Lisa Hayes
Critical Thinking In Elementary Science Instruction Using Portfolios And Cooperative Learning
1994, May
Directed by Arthur B. Millman
Elementary science education often does not reflect the processes used n professional science. Students are instructed in a recipe-oriented way to follow predetermine procedures in order to come to predetermined results. The embedding of critical thinking skills instruction into science curriculum makes it possible for science instruction to more closely resemble professional science.
This curriculum development thesis utilizes critical thinking skills and instructional strategies as a basis for embedding critical thinking skills instruction into a series of lessons on the topic of sound. Each lesson includes objectives for science content and thinking skills, a motivational activity, use of portfolios for metacognition, and an activity to promote the transfer of the targeted thinking skills. Students work in cooperative learning groups to which they belong during the entire lesson series.
A trial implementation of the lessons was conducted in a suburban, heterogeneous, self-contained, third grade classroom. It became clear that this method of teaching requires more student and teacher input and greater effort than traditional methods. The role of the teacher shifts from director to facilitator, and the students become much more involved in the direction their learning takes. Based on constant observation, the teacher must design activities and ask questions which motivate students to continually reshape and modify their thinking.
Students demonstrated an improved ability to accept science as a work in progress, developed questioning skills, and learned to transfer knowledge to new situations. They also began to recognize discrepancies between past and present thinking. Yet some students held on to misconceptions and showed resistance to change in light of opposing evidence. One example of these misconceptions is the belief that sound always passes through transparent objects. This thesis not only provides sample lessons for other teachers, but also serves as a stepping stone for further investigation of students' misconceptions about sound.
subject codes .WRL.ELE

Gretchen Heath
Individual Transitions Between Organizational Cultures
2007, May
Directed by Arthur B. Millman
When transitioning between organizational cultures, an individual can learn to identify and relate to the new culture by using organizational culture theories, understanding his or her own rate of adoption (the rate at which members of a social system adopt new ideas), and identifying with the behaviors of the employees of the new organization. By identifying the culture and behaviors of the new organization, an individual will know which behaviors are accepted within the new culture and which are not. A successful transition requires the letting go of the old, in collaboration with the accepting of the new. When a person is transitioning, he or she needs to cope with the grieving of his or her loss (of the past culture and environment) and the accepting of the new culture simultaneously. A person may realize different phases during his or her transition and can use these identified phases as guidelines to bring him or her through the transition. When the culture is finally adopted by the individual and the values and behaviors become shared with other employees of the organization and its culture, the person has successfully made the transition.
subject codes .COR
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Judith Helmund
Children's Aesthetic Perception: A Developmental Study of Judgements and Attitudes Concerning the Drawings and Paintings of Children
1987, May
Directed by Claire Dolomb
Though children's aesthetic sensitivity has been explored quite extensively in recent years, studies of this subject have been confined to children's response to adult art. In this study two sets of stimulus materials were devised, which enabled the examiner to elicit children's responses to their own artistic productions, as well as those of other children of similar age. The subjects in this first study were kindergarten children, 5-6 years old, who were interviewed individually about their own artistic productions and the media they employed in creating them.
The second study extended the age range to include students from kindergarten through second grade, ages 5-8, and employed a set of stimulus materials representing the art work of children 5-9 years of age. Subjects were interviewed individually by the examiner and questions were devised to elicit response to a variety of aesthetic considerations.
Students in both groups showed evidence of aesthetic sensitivity in their preferences, in critical comments and in their awareness of the developmental nature of art. Children in the first study, which employed both production and perception tasks, displayed greater enthusiasm as well as greater sensitivity to aesthetic elements. Both studies identified a strong cognitive-developmental component in aesthetic responding, evident not only in children's changing views and responses, but in their awareness of skills and abilities. Children gave evidence of reflection, interest, and a dialogue between production and perception. The studies confirm the presence of, and the developmental nature of aesthetic awareness in young children.
subject codes .CUL

Bayse Hendrix
Critical Thinking Dispositions: The Need for a Balanced Curriculum in Collegiate Critical Thinking Courses
1999, June
Directed by Arthur Millman
The aim of this synthesis is to argue that students cannot become effective thinkers simply by being taught the analytical skills of critical reading, writing, and thinking. Without learning the necessary dispositions of critical thinking students will not develop into well-rounded, effective thinkers. The study is focused on an already existing course at Mass Bay Community College. The present curriculum is based on the fundamental skills of determining the soundness and validity of an argument. Assisting and encouraging the obtainment of critical thinking dispositions will inspire students to become more aware of the role their listening and communicating skills and behaviors have on their ability to think effectively. As Kirby and Goodpaster assert, "We have become what we have thought about and who we will become is limited by how and what we think"(5).
Dispositions are "inclinations and habits of mind that benefit productive thinking"(Tishman, Perkins, and Jay 1995, 37). Being open-minded, deferring judgment, listening to multiple perspectives, and having intellectual humility and intellectual curiosity are a few thinking dispositions that are presented in the discussion as well as in the proposed curriculum. Ennis, Paul, Tishman et al, all support the incorporation of thinking dispositions into critical thinking course curriculums.
The curriculum presented in this synthesis is designed to engage students in thoughtful exploratory activities to help foster and cultivate dispositions required for effective thinking. The lesson plans are created with the intention of reinforcing students' tendencies to transfer knowledge, utilize metacognitive strategies, and practice applying thinking dispositions in various scenarios and exercises. The curriculum utilizes critical thinking dispositions and incorporates the enhancement of listening, communicating, and behavioral skills. Each lesson includes a description of dispositions to be explored; an activity to encourage the fostering of those dispositions; goals and objectives; and attention to mental management and transfer of skills. The objective of incorporating nineteen dispositions into a pre-existing critical thinking curriculum is to help freshman college students become reasonable, reflective, and focused thinkers and decision-makers.
subject codes .TCE

Joe Herosy
Musical Composition: A Personal Journey of Discovery Through Critical and Creative Thinking
2003, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
This project consists of the creation of a musical composition, a recording of that composition (on a CD attached to the inside cover), and this paper which describes this creative work and views it through the lens of critical and creative thinking skills learned at University of Massachusetts, Boston. The motivation for the project is to improve my ability to create music by analyzing my strengths and weaknesses as a composer.
The musical piece entitled, "Wedding in Chicago" was created with out any pre- conceived plan for how to compose. After the piece was designed, I wrote about the critical and creative thinking processes that were used in the creation. As a result of this sequence, the techniques and the modes of thought used to create the work brought to light my true abilities as a creator. This sequence also allowed me to realize weaknesses in my creative abilities which in turn will help me create compositions. Since the analysis of the composition process was completed before the literature review, the literature is therefore used to validate my work and to suggest further improvements. Through this process I demonstrate the relevance of thinking skills learned in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program.
A reoccurring theme that presents itself as a result of this work is that both critical and creative though are required in the completion of my composition and recording. The literature review, coupled with analysis of my own work suggests that I need to shift rapidly between the two modes of thought. This interplay of critical and creative thinking is interestingly analogous to the use of contrasting musical elements that characterize the creation of my composition.
subject codes.ART

Alyssa Hinkell
Social Action Teaching: Engaging Middle School Students in Knowing And Doing in the Social Studies Classroom
2009, May
Directed by Nina Greenwald
For the past three years I have had countless opportunities to engage in rich thinking around teaching and learning. As a member of the Critical and Creative Thinking Program (CCT) at the University of Massachusetts, Boston I have been able to reflect on these experiences in the context of my own teaching, applying what I have learned to enrich my own craft. Over the past eight months I have devoted this thinking to a teaching method I call Social Action Teaching. This method has helped to engage and motivate my seventh grade students and I believe, if applied elsewhere, can have a similar impact on other students.
This Synthesis describes the four elements of Social Action Teaching: Classroom Core, Community Connectedness, Civic Awareness, and Global Responsibility. The foundational core of the classroom and the three branches of Social Action Teaching reflect each of the communities that students should be able to effectively navigate. This work describes a two-part process by which this navigation can occur. First, students need to possess the knowledge set associated with each community, whether it be the local, national, or global community. Second, teachers must provide opportunities for students to act upon this knowledge as they develop skills necessary for the 21st century.
Any reader of this Synthesis should feel free to use the specific method described in this work or simply use their own thinking to design another, equally engaging, motivating, and empowering method. My intention with this work is not to convert the disbeliever into a fanatic who will then walk around wearing a sandwich board that displays the many successes of Social Action Teaching. Rather, the wider purpose of this work is to provide a fresh lens with which we can each view our teaching, identify problem areas, implement a new creative method, and critically reflect on its impact on our students.
subject codes .MSE.SOC
(full text)
Pamela Imperato
The Thinking Business
1990, September
Directed by John R. Murray
Technological advances, integration of world economics, and shifts in America's economic base from a goods-producing to a service-based economy are among the factors which will contribute to dramatic alterations in business practices in the coming decade. While the success of private enterprise will no doubt continue to be measured by profit margin, the means to insure this success is changing. No longer is it sufficient to believe that the integration of technological innovations in the workplace or adjustments in business strategies to improve competiveness will insure success in the market place.
A critical step in promoting competitiveness must be taken in the area where products are manufactured, services rendered, and strategic decisions made - the workplace. It will be here, on the shop floor, at the repair bench, in the board room where America's competitive edge must be the sharpest. American industry will need to increase its sensitivity to international marketplace needs by adopting a global perspective in the conceptualization, production, and marketing of products and services.
Business must adapt quickly to changes in consumer needs, seizing opportunities to develop and market new products and services. The ability to take on these challenges does not rest solely in the organization of a business or in the potential of a new technology, but also on the abilities of workers to bring forth these changes. It will be a business which empowers workers to become thoughtful, reflective contributors to the workplace which will survive and flourish.
Employee training programs can no longer focus on discrete, immediately applicable, and often non-transferable skills which foster a reliance on a cycle of worker training and retraining. Instead, a new approach to training must emerge, one which acknowledge the human component as a critical element in devising successful responses to changing economic and technological demands. Since the creation of a single strategy for training is inappropriate, the author presents four recommendations to serve as a framework from which to approach the design of workplace training programs for the development of a thinking business.
subject codes .COR

Setsuko Inoue
Euthanasia: Understanding Ethical Issues Through Role-Play
1999, June
Directed by Arthur Millman
Having transformed traditional ethics, people have empowered themselves and put ethics under their control. An individual's value has become the center of all decision making. where has ethics gone? Why has ethics been fossilized? when an individual desperately needs a litmus test to check his stance, why cannot he re-visit ethics and apply its insights to solving his problems? I wish to believe that there might be a legacy of conventional ethics in the form of universal rules, regardless of time, culture, and context, to be passed on to the next generation. Has God given us life, death, and choice of life? Has God also given us the ability to understand another person's pain? If so, we need to be conscientious about what is an appropriate way to resolve problems along with multi-disciplinary approaches in the postmodern world.
How much has ethics tried to adapt current science/technology? Has ethics offered us any appropriate way of dealing with what's right and/or wrong or with alternatives, whenever we are in the midst of complicated problems? when did we begin to omit ethics in our decision making process? Ethics seems not to be the sole value, but it has to compete with other contemporary values.
The presently burning issue called euthanasia is everyone's business, one we all have to face. I wonder if death is part of God's purpose for lives or a divine appointment. The conundrum intertwined with euthanasia relates to how to reach a satisfactory end of life backed up by ethics. Critical and Creative Thinking could help us go through the crux of the issue and mold an individual's ethical decision, while maintaining a balance with social justice.
My goal in this synthesis paper is two fold: to provide a theoretical description of euthanasia and to prepare English teaching materials for Japanese college students on reading comprehension, by garnering the latest news/research from leading newspapers, periodicals, and the internet, and role play to help exchange views, to share empathy and I hope to create a climate of mutual trust among participants by the time role-play reaches its debriefing session.
subject codes .MED.MOR

Kit Irwin
Fiction Writing and the Unconscious: A Memoir
2007, May
Directed by Carol Smith
In this paper, the expert knowledge of cognitive psychologists, writers, neuroscientists, writing teachers, social psychologists, Weight Watchers, marketing professors, historians, and a tennis pro, along with my experience as a published fiction writer, have been combined and synthesized into a collection of nuggets that give scientifically based ways to improve one's writing and one's writing process. Particular attention has been paid to the way that the unconscious affects writing and its effects on readers. Cognitive psychologists Dijksterhuis and Nordgren's theory of unconscious thought (UTT) recommends using unconscious thought for complex decisions and conscious thought for simple decisions (Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006). Neuroscientist Arne Dietrich's hypothesis of transient hypofrontality suggests that what are seen as higher level of consciousness, such as meditation and runner's high, may actually be reduced level of consciousness, and that Csikszentmihalyi's concept of flow may occur when the unconscious's automatic processes are in control (Dietrich, 2007). Cognitive psychologist Kihlstrom's cognitive unconscious suggests that the unconscious plays a role in our thinking, learning, perception, and memory (Kihlstrom, 1987). Cognitive psychologist Wilson (2002) suggests that your concept of who you are is based on your observations of your behavior, and that if you change your behavior, you can change who you think you are. Boice (1994), a writer and psychologist, suggests that the methods that work best for writing are the usually ones that are counterintuitive, such as stopping writing in the middle of a sentence can make it easier to start writing the next day. Writer Goldberg and psychologists Brewin and Lennard suggest that the mode of writing - handwriting or typing - can affect the emotional content of your writing (Goldberg, 1986; Brewin and Lennard, 1999). This knowledge and more has been synthesized into nuggets. Zafris, Painter, other writers and writing teachers, suggest that a literary short story contains more than one story: an outer story that is plot driven and an inner story that is the emotional core of the story. I hypothesize that the outer story is written for the conscious mind and the inner story is read by the unconscious, and that near the end of the story, the inner and outer stories combine to produce an ending the feels surprising to the conscious mind and inevitable to the unconscious.
subject codes .WRL

Craig Jackson
Cross-Cultural Teaching and Learning: Teaching Environmental Education in Costa Rica
1997, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
Teachers often face large cultural gaps between them and their students. They also often find (especially in science education) that students have not learned what supposedly has been taught them. To counter this lack of learning, some educators argue students must construct their own learning if that learning is to be meaningful. Furthermore, students must address their own prior alternative conceptions. If they do not, these alternative conceptions may be retained, even in the face of instruction to the contrary.
Freire and others have addressed the gap between teachers and students. They have emphasized the need for educators to make learning meaningful by validating students' prior understanding, relating their teaching to the students' experiences, and empowering their students. The teacher is left questioning how can she achieve these goals: (1) What should her role be? (2) What dispositions should she adopt? and (3) What critical and creative thinking abilities should she employ?
Citing Richard Paul, Teresa Amabile, Paolo Freire, and Strike and Posner, among others, this thesis addresses these questions by examining literature on critical and creative thinking, liberatory education, and conceptual change, and relating these to my experiences as a Peace Corps volunteer in Costa Rica. It presents my preparation and development of a program of studies in environmental education as a case study for cross cultural teaching and learning. I explain how I addressed my three goals: to (I) teach environmental principles to my students (2) share teaching strategies and techniques with other teachers and (3) empower my students to realize they can and should make their own decisions with respect to their environment, but should also approach issues from a multi logical perspective. I show how the teacher can help her students construct their own learning by relating lessons to the students' experiences and building upon them. I indicate ways in which prior alternative conceptions can be confronted and multilogical perspectives encouraged. Finally, I emphasize the teacher should examine and understand both her students' background(s) and her own, and may, at various times, have to play five different roles: (I) facilitator (2) guide (3) mode] (4) learner and (5) sharer.
subject codes .ENV

Christine Jacques
Philosophical Teaching as a Means for Raising Critical and Moral Consciousness
1996, September
Directed by Judith Collison
Traditionally, high school English classes have been "tracked", according to ability level. This thesis addresses the problem of teaching an English course to a heterogeneous group of students with diverse academic backgrounds and a range of abilities. It shows how a philosophy-based approach to teaching, as compared with the traditional/didactic approach, provided a means for every ability level of student to participate in the thinking/learning process.
"Philosophical teaching" is a method of teaching and a way of learning that promotes
critical thinking, self-expression, and reasoning through self-reflection, while developing critical and moral consciousness at the same time. It is a method of inquiry that relies on the use of Socratic questioning, small group discussions, and empathic modes of learning as its primary teaching tools. Given the circumstances of this night school English class, both teacher and students found that philosophical teaching proved to be a viable way to help adolescents learn the required content and to think critically and morally.
subject codes .MOR

Marnie Jain
Tension and Critical Thinking in Art
2009, December
Directed by Arthur Millman
This paper is a discussion about the existence, purpose, and use of tension in works of art. It does not take the form of standard papers, but is written as an interview where I am both the interviewer and interviewee. As the interviewee I am an artist and researcher of this topic. As the interviewer, I challenge myself to support my assertions with examples, and I try and catch myself in contradictions, and ask for clarifications.
Similar to conversations we have in the classrooms of the Critical and Creative Thinking Graduate Program, the discussion in this paper does not cease at some final agreement or truth, but carries forward in the quiet of our minds after walking away. This is the heart of the matter, how art affects us, how it works with or against the perceptions that we hold, and how it may open us to different and critical thinking.
subject codes .ART

Michael Johns
Mutual Mondays, PTSD and Dialogue Process with Veterans of Armed Conflict: Becoming a facilitator, and healing along with participants
2011, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
After nearly five years working with youth offenders, addressing the trauma and stress of their lives in gangs and prison I was ready for my current job as a municipal Director of Veterans Services. These positions have given me the opportunity to start addressing posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] that has plagued me for over 20 years, since I flew in the US Navy. Mutual Mondays is a forum I created which brings together veterans using the Dialogue Process to empathically, intellectually, and communally address the effects of participation in armed conflict. Mutual Mondays has been a productive vehicle for veterans connecting with community, moving out of isolation, and starting to recognize, as well as act on opportunities to improve overall health. Based on my personal experience as a veteran and involvement with Mutual Mondays, I believe that the complexity of issues facing the invisibly wounded and the resistance to seek therapy underscore the need for alternative methods of helping them. // In this synthesis paper I set the scene with some vignettes, describe how PTSD as a personal and wider social problem led to the idea of mutual support that is central to the Dialogue Process and its implementation in Mutual Mondays. I relate parallel explorations of alternative theories and practices, including my own recent Cognitive Behavioral Therapy treatment as a veteran. With a view to ongoing development, I introduce some working themes, including CANVAS, PEACE, USA, ECDT and disciplined writing and research structures, as well as the challenges of evaluating Mutual Mondays and its potential for use with other populations. To close I revisit the opening scenes. // In retrospect I see that the impetus for this project was the desire to learn if a dedicated person or group of people can start a community grassroots effort to serve populations in need that can be replicated easily to other communities if the concept is validated through experience. Going forward, I am interested to know if the wave of momentum will attract care-givers and those in need; and if it is possible to get those served to be in a position to be the care-givers, in a perpetual model of mutual support, positively influencing those giving and receiving. subject codes.COM
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Kevin Johnson
Web-Based Transitioning for Students with Disabilities: Learning from Existing Limitations to Design a Process that Leaves No Child Behind
2006, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
Students with disabilities face numerous obstacles. This is especially true while in the process of postsecondary transitioning, moving from secondary (K-12) to Post-secondary schooling (College, University or Community College). The transitioning process poses obstacles to all students however students with disabilities confront additional obstacles unique to having a disability. Federal law mandates public secondary schools design transition plans, a written plan detailing students' transition from secondary to postsecondary school. Secondary schools must also create opportunities for students to develop both academic and life skills critical to successfully take the postsecondary leap and remain successful at the postsecondary level. The need for effective and efficient transition planning has become critical for these students in an era of revised public higher education admissions standards and more stringent K-12 learning standards. This climate has placed increasing demands on the educators responsible for facilitating the transitioning process; rendering the development and writing of transition plans outdated, incomplete and ineffective. This problem with transition plans has led me to consider an alternative approach the subject of this synthesis. To help facilitate a solution I have designed a proposal that remains in progress for the development of a web-based application that I call, The Transition Portal with the following objectives: - Organize the transition planning process allowing schools to monitor those students of highest risk. - Provide educators the means to actively write transition plans that represent the goals and interests of the student over an extended period of time. - Give transition plans the ability to travel with the student throughout their educational careers allowing critical information to be transferred and revised by educators that work with a particular student from middle school on through to post-secondary institutions. Such a process will allow for the process to develop along with the student's own development. The flexibility associated with web-based application creates a platform that will assist in the coordination of services with external agencies. Many external agencies currently assist schools in the distribution of critical services ensuring that those students most in need and most at risk receive critical support during an important phase in their lives. The overall goal of this project is to help improve student and teacher productivity and empowerment. The proposal for the implementation of The Transition Portal is intended for use with students who might otherwise be left to fall through the cracks.
subject codes .TCE

Patricia Kate Johnson
Teaching Government: The Child as a Power Base
1980, May
Directed by
subject codes .GOV

Judith L. Kahalas
Death and Dying: A High School Curriculum
1982
Directed by
subject codes .MSE

Brian Keegan
Developing the Critical Literacy Web
1997, May
Directed by ?
The rapid advancement of communications technology in the past decade has given rise to widespread speculation about how educational and informational matter might best be presented. As Neil Postman points out, the "imperial age of typography" is over. The linear presentation of ideas in simple text form has given way to other methods, from hypertext presentation to complex audio-visual orchestrations.
In trying to create a project that embodies the spirit of Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT), I have taken advantage of advancing technology to present information concerning CCT in an interactive format that allows the learner to explore the subject in both its academic and everyday manifestations. I have designed a World Wide Web site, called the Critical Literacy Web, that introduces site visitors to the academic origins and content of CCT, and invites visitors to explore CCT as it can be applied in their lives. The site also links to various selected resources elsewhere on the web that are relevant to CCT.
subject codes.TEC.WRL

Jane Kenefick
The Use of Dialogue in Education: Research, Implementation and Personal/Professional Evaluation
2004, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
As I reflect back on my learning through the Program in Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT), The Dialogue Process course (CCT 616) has been the pivotal experience for my current research and future career direction. Research and observations I have made in my work show that dialogue practice in elementary classrooms leads to overall learning through community building in the classroom, and to more effective student thinking and meta-cognitive strategies. Although I believe in the importance of dialogue in education, I have struggled with implementing it into my own teaching. The struggle itself has stimulated a deeper examination of the obstacles as I see them. It has also required personal and professional reflection on my process through CCT, and communicating my ideal vision of dialogue in the larger scheme of my work and life.
My synthesis highlights my learning experiences through the CCT program and the influences it had on my career. It discusses some of the critical points of my experiences in connection to my specific interest in Dialogue. Without this reflection on past learning, my current reflection would be impossible. Naming those skills and ideals that I have drawn from my coursework, has enabled me to reconnect with my passion for education itself, as well as the value the dialogue process holds for learning and teaching. By asking myself the question of why I am finding implementation of dialogue so difficult, I've been able to answer this and other questions relating to the question of where I am headed with my professional life and why.
subject codes.COM
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Marie Kenerson
Stepping Stones for Living Creativity: A Holistic Approach to Critical and Creative Thinking
1997, May
Directed by ?
This paper synthesizes the current thinking of Peter Senge, Margaret Wheatley and Robert Fritz, and presents the development of personal mastery in a relational context as a way to facilitate an individual and collective shift in consciousness to a more creative orientation. I contend that it is the natural desire, and indeed the responsibility, of each of us to create what we want in our lives rather than to be bound by the status quo or past patterns of acceptable behavior. When we do, we make possible a new collective future based on a critical viewing of our current reality. Fundamental to this new frame of reference are the development of connection-making and meaning-making capabilities. This paper offers various tools, methodologies and experimental exercises to build these capacities for action, based on the recent work of Richard Paul in Critical Thinking, George Prince in Creative Thinking, Matthew Lipman in Caring Thinking and Robert Cooper in Emotional Intelligence. Group process practices are based on tenets that are the foundation of Dialogue as proposed by physicist David Bohm, spiritual teacher J. Krishnamurti, and Alcoholics Anonymous.
As a practice laboratory I agreed to design and facilitate a workshop of eight two-hour sessions for ten to twelve people using these methodologies to enhance life skills and supplement the recovery process defined by the Alcoholics Anonymous Twelve Step Program. Participants were a group of men living in a half-way house, The Answer House, for a four month period during which they practiced strengthening their new-found sobriety and prepared to enter the "real world." By providing these tools as "Stepping Stones for Living Creatively" at this particular time, I sought to build skills that would allow these people to observe with clarity, expand perceptions of what is possible, and increase capacity to learn and interact effectively. My thesis was that with practice, these skills could become embedded in a way of life that enabled participants to experience and observe themselves in relation to themselves, to others and to the whole (group) in a way that continually opened options and possibilities and made room for creativity to take place.
Participants at the end of the program reported they experienced an expanded sense of self and increased confidence. Managers of the Answer House confirmed this, saying individuals displayed openness, appropriate vulnerability and resilience in daily interactions.
subject codes.FRP

Kimberley Kent
Development of Critical Thinking through Art Production
1996, May
Directed by Delores Gallo
Most discussion and application of the skills of critical thinking involves verbal or written language. The symbol systems of mathematics and science are included, but the symbol systems of art are often not included. When critical thinking is included in an art curriculum, the critical thinking is seen as being developed through verbal or written assessments such as
art history, art criticism or aesthetics, rather than through the art production. The act of creating art is frequently left out of the discussion. This omission causes the loss of an important opportunity to teach critical thinking skills. It also leads to the devaluation of the
role of art in education.
This thesis details ways in which creative and critical thinking are required to meet the National Visual Arts Standards. It also discusses Arts Propel and Discipline-Based Art Education, two current models of art education that teach critical and creative thinking.
The central concern of this thesis is the documentation of the critical thinking involved in the production of art. The thesis presents a case study of students in a studio-based, introductory art class at an urban Catholic high school. Student journals are analyzed for the development of critical thinking through the students' art work. These skills are
identified in the writings of experts in the field, such as Richard Paul, Robert Ennis and Lauren Resnick. This thesis also addresses some of the connections between critical and creative thinking, referring to work by Delores Gallo and Theresa Amabile.
The specific critical thinking skills documented through the journals include self-regulation of the thinking process, setting goals, recognizing the achievement of those goals, and increased clarity, specificity and complexity of analysis and evaluation.
subject codes .CUL

Lori Kent
Critical Thinking and the Critical Viewing of Art
1992, December
Directed by Delores B. Gallo
A command of critical thinking can enhance aesthetic encounter by giving the individual a better reflective understanding of the process of viewing and the content of art. Art is important. It gives pleasure, aids in human development, defines a part of culture, and helps humans to make sense out of the world. Yet, despite art's positive role, few viewers consciously work to improve their capabilities and critical reflective judgment about art.
Critical thinking skills can be taught through the content of art just as the aesthetic viewing process can be enhanced through critical thinking skills. Art educators remain, for the most part, unaware of the advances being made in the teaching for thinking in education.
An interdisciplinary overview of the disciplines of art, critical thinking, interpretative traditions, and the aesthetic viewing process is the foundation of knowledge for the critical viewer. The critical viewer uses critical thinking to enhance the process of apprehension and the content of the art experience.
Theory presented in this work is used in the conceptualization of a model for critical viewing. The theory, which acknowledges affect and cognition as complementary ways of knowing, is sequential but non-hierarchical. The five steps in the model are: Sustained Viewing, Analysis, Informed Viewing, Synthesis, and Reflection.
The viewing process is developed through teaching for thinking strategies. Self-guided museum explorations teach individual thinking skills and guide the reader through an aesthetic viewing process similar to that of expert viewers. The readers is encouraged to be metacognitive about the process and the content of the aesthetic encounter.
the critical viewer gains more than an enhanced ability to view art. The skills and abilities of critical viewing may be transferred to other content and contents, hence enriching the critical viewer's life as a whole.
subject codes .CUL

Eileen Kestenbaum
The Computer As A Tool: The Metaphor In Educational Settings
1999, December
Directed by Millman
This paper seeks to engage its principal audience, classroom teachers, and its broader audience, educational professionals, in an examination of the learning theories and practices that underlie the values and assumptions inherent in computer use. The paper considers the effects of using computers in education, effects that often come into play before the user (student and/or teacher) has even touched the computer. I take as a particular point of entry the phrase "the computer is a tool" whose meaning is rarely considered or discussed. I suggest drawing attention to this phrase from three different perspectives (1) the implications of thinking about tools as metaphors; (2) the effects on thinking or cognition of using computers as tools; and (3) the implications of using computer metaphors to think about thinking. This discussion draws upon the work of Michael Polanyi, Israel Scheffler, Malcolm McCullough, and Richard Boyd. Combining these perspectives, the closing chapter presents issues and open-ended questions that I hope other educators will join me in thinking about.
Over the last ten years, observations, conversations, and misguided uses have suggested to me that there is an "uncritical" and "unthinking" use of technology for technology's sake. Because of this underlying current, I considered it essential to my development as a professional technology specialist, and in my role as support-person for encounters between students, teachers, and computers, that I personally develop a conceptual basis for making judgments about educational computer use and offer it to other educators who share my concerns. I encourage students and teachers to move beyond the metaphor to a more detailed understanding of what is happening: cognitively, instructionally, emotionally, and perhaps, even spiritually. When one chooses to use a computer as a pedagogic tool, the concept of "tool" does not do justice to the human transformation-education-which takes place.
subject codes .THR.TEC

Deborah G. King
1997, May
Directed by
subject codes

John King
Writing Essays on Advertisements to Teach Critical and Creative Thinking
1991, May
Directed by Joseph W. Check
The synthesis of critical and creative thinking presented in this curriculum is a highly contextualized answer to a very broad question: how can students develop responsible and effective thinking through writing when the subject matter is complex and involves values? Advertisements are complex and value-laden-they provide rich material for the development of thinking. Three aspects of advertisement that pose specific challenges to thinking are discussed: their presentation of appearance as reality, their use of symbols, and their ability to transfer values onto products. Students learn specific thinking strategies that help them understand and respond to these aspects of advertisements. The thinking strategies are integrated into writing exercises that follow a process-oriented approach to essay writing. In the exercises, students pose questions, respond to the writing of their peers and engage in a variety of different conceptual interactions with an advertisement. They integrate their responses into an effective point of view, revise and edit their writing with attention to intended audience. Students develop a scoring rubric, provide a comprehensive self-evaluation, and conference with the teacher at the end of the curriculum. Students publish their essays in a class anthology. Their essays are the culmination of their efforts: the product that demonstrates the development of their thoughts. The lessons are designed for high school English students in a way that gives the students responsibility for their own work. Each lessons contains thinking skills objectives, detailed descriptions of activities, journal writing assignments, follow-up activities, and writing samples. The curriculum is preceded by an in depth review of current curricula and specific work of chosed theorists from the fields of thinking, writing, and advertising.
subject codes .WRL.MSE

Katherine Kittredge
A Critical Thinking Unit on Electricity and Magnetism to Encourage Females and Minorities
1992, September
Directed by John R. Murray
This thesis examines possible reasons for female and minority student avoidance of high school physics, and then discusses an electricity and magnetism curriculum designed to help all students, but especially girls and minorities, succeed in such subjects. The sixteen lessons in the curriculum encourage all students by providing hands-on experiences and guidance which leads the students to develop their critical and creative thinking and problem solving skills as they draw conclusions about their investigations and then apply their conclusions to new situations and problems.
Some factors which discourage female and minority students from taking courses in mathematics and science are low self-confidence, negative social conditioning and low expectations, negative views of math and science, and poorly designed instructional materials and pedagogy. These factors my discourage those students who do enroll in such courses from applying themselves and may cause some to drop out.
In order to teach students successfully, a conscious effort is made to structure the electricity and magnetism lessons so that the students have active and meaningful classroom experience which engage them in critical and creative thinking. The students are taught to reflect upon their thinking and to share thinking strategies and problem solving strategies with other students. The hands-on activities foster self-confidence and allow students to internalize the new knowledge. Because problem solving, discovering, and hypothesizing all demand that students admit ignorance and/or risk answers which may be incorrect, it is important to help them develop self-confidence so that they become willing to risk being wrong and to persevere through frustration. Therefore, the classroom environment is structured so that it will support and encourage all students and provide them with real world applications.
subject codes .GEN.SCI.MSE

Sabine Koopmann
Empowerment through Creativity: A Workshop for Women
1991, December
Directed by
This thesis addresses the problems women face when attempting to become and be recognized as creative persons. In a patriarchal culture the dominant social image of a woman conflicts with the image of a creative person. The model that knowledge is always constructed within a frame of reference, which has been developed as part of the critical thinking movement, is used to explain the discrepancies between a patriarchal and a feminist approach to identifying creative work. Claiming that there is a need for the empowerment of women by accessing their creativity and helping them employ it, the author designs a four day workshop for that purpose.
The examination of traditional theories of the nature and origin of creativity shows that they have not adequately considered female experience or contributions. The exploration of the psychological and social obstacles to women's creativity reveals three major types of problems with: (1) women's development of the self, (2) common female life experiences, and (3) patriarchal standards for the evaluation of creative work. A feminist definition of creativity as self-actualization is derived. Furthermore, the author suggests feminist standards for evaluation: diversity and equality, accessibility and non-hierarchy, mending the Cartesian split and interconnectedness with the immediate and larger community. Employing these standards and the definition of creativity as self-actualization, the time frame, group of participants, environment, and creativity-enhancing techniques for the workshop are explained, and the workshop is described in detail session by session.
Finally, the author addresses the issues of recommended behaviors and attitudes for instructors of such a workshop and of appropriate tools for the evaluation of the success of the workshop. The intention of this educational intervention is to make a small contribution to empowering women and to changing the dominant social views of creativity.
subject codes .GEN.CTY

Jane LaChance
Illness Stories: From Recognizing The Significance In Care To Planning My Own Storied Practice
2007, December
Directed by Arthur Millman
In this paper, stories of illness are identified as belonging to a specific genre of story that represents an ill personâs interpretation of experience and hence the meaning(s) of illness. The ill person is recognized as member of a family embedded in a social setting with cultural mores that contribute to experience and meanings. The meaning of illness is significant because it affects the care of illness. This paper focuses on chronic illness, an illness without cure that is managed over a lifetime and is characterized by remission and exacerbation of symptoms. Our current bio-medical health care system reframes the illness to disease, reduces it to pathology and misses the meaning for patients. Conflict and noncompliance result. What I am calling a storied approach complements current care and management of chronic illness by improving patient care, and the management of illness and by encouraging collaborative care. We organize experience and make sense of things by telling our stories. Jerome Bruner characterizes narrative knowing based on storytelling as a way to construct reality and understand human behavior. The conception of illness story is based on the work of Arthur Kleinman, who has studied chronic illness meaning(s), and describes a supporting framework that includes symptom meaning, cultural input and personal/social meaning and explanatory models. Stories change over time and circumstance; the meaning of illness experience changes. Two research studies are presented to identify factors that influence change from loss to mastery. The story of my nursing practice in case management has significantly changed over time with new skills, knowledge and experience acquired in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program. I briefly describe my progress at the beginning of each chapter. I propose a reorientation of my nursing practice as well as next steps to take in my journey. Two illness stories are included in the appendix: Donnaâs story and Lisaâs story provide examples of illness stories encountered during my graduate study.
subject codes .MED
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Caroline LaCroix
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Mathematics
1991, December
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Alternative courses in mathematics for low-ability students which provide success in the use of critical thinking activities and problem solving strategies are needed. To this end, the author wrote a course called Critical Thinking and Problem Solving for the Boston Public Schools, designed to emphasize real-life application, a multi-sensual approach and problem solving strategies.
The goals of this course were to provide successful leaning situations in which students critically examined information for problem solving. In so doing, the students reinforced and expanded their ability to do mathematics.
This thesis attempts to demonstrate how critical thinking and problem solving can be infused with meaningful mathematics application. Critical thinking serves as a vehicle for students to connect information within mathematics and to apply it to other subject areas.
A selection of problem solving strategies generates a variety of heuristics. Choosing appropriate strategies is important for students to achieve understanding and success within their individual leaning styles.
Three unit lessons from the course on Critical Thinking and Problem Solving are discussed in this thesis. These are Comparison and Contrast, Classification, and Finding Reasons and Uncovering Assumptions, skills chosen for their familiarity and widespread use. Each unit begins with a real-life application of a critical thinking skill, followed by applications to language, number theory, and geometry.
The author reflects on the development of the course and on its implementation during the first year. Students' reactions and suggestions for future course content are also included. By understanding how to apply critical thinking skills and how to infuse them into mathematics, students can evaluate their reasoning more effectively and approach mathematics more successfully.
subject codes .SCI.MSE

John Landis
Metacognition And Critical Viewing Curricula: A Symbiosis
??
Directed by
The exercise of one's metacognitive skills--skills involving awareness and control of one's own thought processes--is the central means by which one exercises his autonomy and embarks on a life of continual learning. The nurturing of each student's metacognitive skills is warranted as a central objective of education. However, while metacognition is an intuitively
satisfying concept, it remains unclear. The problems inherent in the conceptualization of metacognition as a psychological construct will be addressed; a teleological definition will be presented as more appropriate and useful.
A summary of the literature on cognitive psychology, with emphasis on the cognitive-behavioral perspective, will yield evidence which will be used to derive basic suggestions for ways in which educators can foster metacognition to facilitate transfer of thinking skills to new contexts. It will be shown that these efforts complement and mutually reinforce each other. Educational implications of this symbiosis will be explored.
In identifying ways in which educators can exploit this symbiosis in order to maximize students' development of thinking skills, it will be shown that critical viewing instruction presents a context that is uniquely effective in this regard. Suggestions for fostering metacognitive skills and facilitating transfer of thinking skills using critical viewing instruction will be presented. Also, three commercially available critical viewing curriculum packages, which target mostly middle and high school students, will be assessed with regard to their utility in this endeavor.
subject codes .THR

Bernadette LaVoie
Critical Thinking and Client Centered Nursing Care
1992, September
Directed by
Critical and creative thinking skills are necessary for the new graduate and experienced nurses alike, if they are to respond to the rapidly changing health care system and deliver professional nursing care. Knowledge, generally speaking, is a resource not a constraint, but it becomes a constraint if it is not in the acceptable form. Consequently, knowledge alone is insufficient if the nurse clinician is unable to select the relevant information and defend its integration into client care. Skillful and perceptive nursing practice includes the ability to set and revise priorities for client care, manage actual and potential risks to individuals, and develop, evaluate and revise individualized plans of care.
The focus in this thesis is on the application of critical and creative thinking (CCT) skills in nursing practice. There is a particular focus on activities and processes related to nursing care. Emphasis is placed on the use of knowledge in the acquisition and development of skills, and on problem solving. There is discussion of the ways in which nursing practice may be captured in writing. The relationship of CCT to nursing management is discussed and examples are offered. The CCT skills and strategies which are helpful in introducing the theory of modeling and role modeling to a nursing unit are presented. This theory focuses on the clients' needs and a model of their world as a base for nursing intervention.
Nurses exercise CCT skills when being conscious of the need to imaginatively put themselves in the place of the other in order to genuinely understand the client. This technique relates to stage six of Kohlberg's moral stages of reasoning "...that of any rational individual recognizing the nature of morality or the fact that persons are ends in themselves and must be treated as such..." (1976, 35). Critical thinking then, should not only help to make those in the nursing profession better thinkers, but also better human beings.
subject codes .MED

Ann Leary
The Implementation of Conflict Management Training Into The Post Anesthesia Care Setting for Staff Nurses During Yearly Competency Day
2011, May
Directed by Carol Smith
I am a Nurse in Charge of the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston and believe conflict can be managed better by using critical and creative thinking skills. Conflicts in the healthcare workplace are common and can take on a variety of forms: nurse to physician, nurse to nurse, and nurse to patient/family. Both my research and experience suggests that nurses commonly avoid conflict, rather than engaging in collaborative problem solving about conflict, which would often lead to better solutions. The Critical and Creative Thinking Program has given me the confidence and provided the skills to continue my work using multiple approaches including collaboration in conflict management in the healthcare setting. Some of the tools I have learned from the Critical and Creative Thinking Program that are critical to the better management of conflict are: active listening, knowing yourself, and taking time to consider all options available when making decisions. The program has changed the way in which I approach conflict by actively listening to what the person is trying to say and really trying to grasp an understand about their point of view. Gathering all the information is crucial before making a decision because they may provide additional information and new ideas that I can implement in my decision making. // There is currently no training in conflict management for staff nurses, only for nursing management. However, it is needed at the staff nurse level as well as leadership level. Consequently, the goal of my synthesis is to design a conflict management workshop for my staff nurses. This workshop will be taught during the Annual Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) Competency Day, held on various days throughout the year. I will teach this workshop to small groups which consist of five to seven staff nurses who are familiar to me. During the workshop I will help my staff nurses become more aware of their typical conflict resolution style by introducing them to the five Thomas Kilmann Styles of Conflict Resolution, which are: competing, compromising, avoiding, accommodating, and collaborating-and asking them to reflect on the style they most use. They will then be given a chance to reflect on strengths and limits of different ways of responding in three case scenarios: nurse to physician conflict, nurse to nurse conflict, and nurse to patient/family conflict based on the use of the Thomas Kilmann styles. At the end of the workshop there will be a final reflection about the workshop. This will involve the staff having time to do some private writing and a group check in. // Once the workshop is complete, I will continue to investigate how the staff is managing their own conflicts as well as provide opportunities for them to share their stories and insights about managing particular conflicts. This information will be helpful to bring back to the Leadership Team and will also help me understand the ways that the workshop are to be extended or revised in the future for the staff nurses. subject codes.MED
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Kathleen Leavitt
Identifying Methods Nurse Managers Can Implement To Foster A Supportive Environment For Staff Where Disruptive Behavior Exists
2007, December
Directed by Arthur Millman
We can all imagine the ideal work environment, where you are respected, empowered, and provided with the resources to perform to the best of your ability everyday. Your skills would be acknowledged and the challenging work that is accomplished each day would be appreciated by peers, team members, and managers. However, in my work environment, an operating room, a phenomenon called ãdisruptive behaviorä often interrupts the ability of achieving this desired state. Initially I was focused on this behavior being displayed by physicians but was awakened to the fact that they are not the only offenders and that many caregivers also behave in this manner. Obviously this behavior in a healthcare setting can have a negative impact on the patients who come to the institution seeking healing and compassion. Realizing that this disturbing behavior will continue to exist, despite efforts within the operating room and the institution as a whole, this paper addresses what I can do in my role as a nurse manager. The first step was to undertake a literature review to understand ways I can support my staff that are subjected to and at times engage in the unproductive conduct. The literature review revealed tools that support employees in many situations, not exclusively in an operating room environment. The eleven tools I present in this paper are taken from many different areas such as business applications, healthcare articles, spiritual beliefs, and basic behavioral principles. They include: emotional intelligence, engagement, positive reinforcement, energizing, motivating employees, constructive conversations, Buddhist principles- The Human Factor, storytelling, ãNew Agreementsä tenets, a respectful, civilized, work environment, and building respect and establishing trust. The tools may be used alone or may be grouped together for a greater impact. Some may be more effective when utilized on an individual while others would have a greater influence when applied in a group setting. Employees who feel a sense of satisfaction, fulfillment and value are more likely to remain in their current position and be more efficient, productive and involved. My goal as a manager is to support staff and utilize the discussed tools for the purpose of empowering staff to expect that appropriate behavior is exhibited at all times and work towards creating a healthier workplace. The journey I have undertaken in CCT has provided me with new tools and has added another dimension to the way I approach and think through problems that continuously arise in my professional life. The various methods and phases that I have learned to utilize for problem-solving purposes has aided in my ability towards the pursuit of creating a more supportive and healthier workplace.
subject codes .MED
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Beck Hing Lee
Leadership Of A New Generation To Forge Peace, Progress And Prosperity For All
2006, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
Good leadership is important for the success of organizations but good leadership to forge peace, progress and prosperity for all is vital in bringing about lasting world peace and harmony. Yet, there is the task as to how such leadership can be trained and developed especially for the young, whose minds may have the pliability to be successfully developed in this respect through proper leadership training. I have in this paper created a framework for leadership training and development comprising of six dimensions that I deem necessary for the cultivation of such leadership. These six dimensions of leadership development are essential in my opinion, in that by mastering each and every one of them, a person would at least come closer and closer to achieving the broad umbrella of the leadership ability to forge peace, progress and prosperity for all. This framework model can be used as a guide for leadership pedagogy or it can be applied to personal leadership development. I have also come to recognize that there are five different stages through which such leadership development would go through. Even though there can be overlaps in the stages and their sequence may not be fixed, they are important aspects to consider in the planning and execution of the above leadership training endeavor. It is my hope that by zeroing in on each of the six dimensions, young aspiring leaders would mature through the stages to become noble leaders who will protect our global future and guide the world toward the peace and harmony that we are so devoid of.
subject codes .SOC

Sherry Lemire
The Impact and Implications of the New Technologies: Educational Imperatives for a New World of Work
1998, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
Using Jeremy Rifkin's The End of Work and Robert Reich's The work of Nations as primary sources, this paper examines the implications of a paradigm shift to a near-workerless world, especially as they relate to education. The paper consists of three chapters: the first chapter gives an historical overview of the Industrial Revolution, which provides a context for discussing the implications of the work of Rifkin and Reich; the third chapter reviews the major implications presented by Rifkin and Reich; the third chapter reviews the major implications as they relate to education. Recommendations for developing a disposition for critical and creative thinking as well as a description of a sub-set of pertinent critical and creative thinking skills is given in chapter three.
subject codes .TEC

Donna Letteriello
Documenting the Undocumented in Italo-American Female Creativity
1998, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
This synthesis project documents specific, penitential domestic tasks of ritual celebration of the feast of St. Joseph as practiced by the Amari family. While still practiced in Sicily, this ritual is rare in America. It has three phases: the making of bread dough sculptures, the creation of a home alter, and the preparation of a meal of foods eaten solely on this day. Only women participate in these events, therefore, I offer this documentation as a record of undocumented Italian-American female creativity.
Through this synthesis and several photo essays I have set out to record these domestic acts of cultural meaning-making and preserving them as family and social traditions and acts of female creativity. Chapter 1 explains the evolution of my synthesis project and the reasons why I chose this topic. I also describe the 3 main components contained in my synthesis project, several narrative essays in chapters 2 and 3, traces the beginnings of the celebration feast of St. Joseph and its annual place of tradition in the Amari's family. An appendix of several photo essays documents the explanations of domestic and ritual tasks contained in chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7. And lastly, a theoretical reflective essay in chapter 8, describes my own creative process which I relate to theoretical readings on the creative process model, by social psychologist Teresa Amabile.
subject codes .CUL.GEN

Marie Levey-Pabst
Navigating the Complexities in Teaching: Exploring the Thinking Processes that Trigger and Sustain Teacher Development
2010, May
Directed by Carol Smith
As a student in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program I have learned about ways of thinking that have greatly impacted how I teach my high school students as well as how I think about my own teaching. Over the past year I have sought out teachers to interview to help me expand my understanding about how teachers make thoughtful decisions given the complex realities they face. Through analyzing these teachers' reflections on their thoughts and experiences I have discovered ways of opening my own thinking as well as patterns in productive teacher thinking that could help many other teachers grow and improve. This paper explores how teachers think about their experiences through the lens of adaptive expertise and problem solving. It describes how these teachers think through three complex, and related, areas of teaching: instructional choices, trying new ideas and taking classroom risks. The narratives from these teachers provide the reader with examples of both questions these teachers used to think through their choices, as well as real classroom examples of the mistakes and successes teachers had as a result of these choices. These teachers' descriptions of their work are not meant to provide a model of how to run a classroom, but instead to provide several models of how educators have navigated the complexities of teaching.
subject codes .MSE
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Lale Lewis
Infusing Thinking Skills into Media Literacy Education: An Education's Practical Workbook 1997, May
Directed by Delores Gallo
subject codes .CUL

John Lewis
Learning, Teaching and Brain Research: Insights From Current Research That May Affirm Teaching and Learning Strategies
2004, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
This paper identifies recent psychological and brain research that may help the teacher to develop new teaching techniques or better understand teaching techniques shown to be effective in the classroom. Much of the available research requires a significant background in cognitive psychology (which most educators possess) and biology of the human brain (which most educators do not possess). This work translates this research into a form understandable by educators and learners alike, which corresponds to my post-graduation plans to continue learning about psychological and brain research and translating for educators the parts relevant to teaching and learning.
The specific aspects of research I cover include the following: how the brain constructs neural networks, the effects of emotion on brain development and memory, and how learning tasks can change the neural networks in response to stimuli. The major lessons for educators are that there is no magic bullet to be found-at least not yet-but that specific forms of instruction demonstrate measurable improvements in cognitive abilities, and that research in cognitive psychology combined with brain imaging technologies allows us to see how learning and instruction alter the brain during the learning process.
subject codes.SCI
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Mona Liblanc
A Thinking Woman's Definition of Meaningful Work
1998, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
The Critical and Creative Thinking Graduate Program is a "community of inquiry" (Lipman 1991, 3) that fosters opportunities for "transformative events" (Bepko and Krestan 1993, 196) which have been catalysts for my epistemological evolution. I entered the Program seeking insight into the causes or reasons for my dissatisfaction with my professional work choices. My participation in this Program provided the structure necessary to identify the characteristics of meaningful work and the vital role it plays in my self-actualization process. By providing learning opportunities which trigger "transformative events" (Bepko and Kre stan 1993, 196), the Program has changed the way I see and value my thinking skills and their use in the workplace.
This paper chronicles three key events that triggered transformative insights and new ways of seeing myself and my work. It describes the process by which the Program integrates Matthew Lipman's (1991) reflective model of education; fostering opportunities for transforming events to occur. The transformative nature of these events is described and the shifts in my meaning making processes are analyzed using the epistemological framework developed by Mary Field Belenky and her colleagues (1986). By helping me to discover and acknowledge my skill (and the ever-present desire for further development) as a "higher-order" thinker (Lipman 1991, 3), my experiences in this Program exposed my need for and helped to clarify my definition of personally meaningful work. It is with such clarity that I have secured a new position that demands professional integrity, rewards creative collaboration, and allows me to facilitate others' learning to improve their work lives.
subject codes .GEN

Michael Lihon
Promoting Rapid, Sustainable Operational Change in Business Organizations
2009, May
Directed by Nina Greenwald
The dual purpose of this position paper is to communicate both the kinds of thinking needed to make rapid operational changes in business organizations and the kinds of thinking needed to sustain these while further changes are being incorporated. Promoting sustainable change in business operations is a process of adaptation characterized by strategic steps taken by an organization to stay competitive in the global business environment. Specifically, this paper focuses on industries that involve complex manufacturing or production operations that need improvement. It is directed to managers, supervisors and technicians who wish to incorporate efficient sustainable change in production. It is proposed that standard approaches such as Quality Improvement Methodologies (QIM) are enhanced through learning to use critical and creative thinking dispositions (habits of mind) and strategies for achieving rapid, sustainable operational change in business organizations. QIM can yield far better results when the training is implemented through phases of learning with thinking dispositions and strategies. This will result in an organization's ability to adapt quickly to changes necessary for remaining competitive in global markets.
subject codes .COR
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Kyle Lindholm
Doodles to Drawings: The Creative Process of Drawing & Thinking for Cartooning
2004, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
Doodles to Drawings: The Creative Process of Drawing & Thinking for Cartooning invites the reader into the cartoonist's mind at work. The author guides the audience through his cartooning process by presenting work from his sketchbook which includes illustrations, sketches, various notes, and final drawings. Diagrams graphically organize the key thinking strategies of the drawings as they progresses. From these illustrations the author extrapolates seven recurring patterns which characterize his own process include: Mental Work, Take-in Information, Free Flowing, Sudden, & Rapid Appearance of Ideas, Sketching as Many Ideas as Possible, Creating Multiple Versions, A Messy Process, and the Need to Think Critically.
These seven characteristics are paralleled by writer Graham Wallas's (1926) four stage model of creativity. The four stages, preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification, become the lens through which the authors creative process is described in terms of fluency, flexibility, elaboration, originality, and risk taking. The author also reflects on critical thinking dispositions such as Costa's sixteen Habits of Mind. These habits of mind include Persisting, Managing Impulsivity, Understanding & Empathy, Thinking Flexibility, Metacognition, Striving for Accuracy & Precision, Questioning & Posing Problems, Applying Past Knowledge to New Situations, Thinking and Communicating with Clarity, Gathering Data through All Senses, Creating Imagining & Innovating, Respond with Wonderment & Awe, Taking Responsible Risks, Finding Humor, Thinking Interdependently, and Learning Continuously. Coupled with Betty Edwards's view of drawing as a combination of seeing as an artist and visualizing the author constructs a model of cartooning as a combined process of critical and creative thinking and drawing.
subject codes.ART

Karen Litzinger
Creative Problem Solving with Tangrams
1992, September
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
With the world changing so rapidly, students need to by educated differently than in the past. Among the changes indicated by numerous research studies and national commissions is the realization that students need to increase their problem solving skills in mathematics.
At the root of the current challenges in mathematics education are the issues of how children learn. Cognitive theories suggest that children learn best by building upon their initial experiences and becoming actively involved in constructing their own knowledge. One way to accommodate students' natural tendencies to learn through experience is to provide learning activities to enhance problem solving skills in geometry.
Geometry is a field of mathematics that helps students relate mathematics in a meaningful way to the real world. There are many geometric manipulative materials, among them tangrams, an ancient Chinese puzzle, which lends itself to exploration of spatial reasoning, spatial relationships, and geometric problem solving.
For the purposed of this thesis, tangrams were employed in three third grade classrooms. Activities were designed to involve students in a gradual learning process where exploration, cooperative group work, journal writing, homework assignments, and problem solving all served to build significant experiences for the students and teachers alike. Critical and creative thinking skills were taught as students solved and created puzzles of increasing difficulty and related them to various aspects of mathematical thinking including geometrical interpretations of arithmetical computations, fractional relationships, symmetry and other properties of shapes.
Chapters I and II of this thesis present the rationale for this project based on current theories and findings in mathematics education and critical and creative thinking. Chapter III describes the activities in detail, provides teaching commentary on the lessons, and suggests improvements on all aspects of the implementation for teachers who may wish to embark on a similar project. Chapter IV presents and analyzes comments taken from the students' journals and the feed-back questionnaire given to the two other teachers. The consensus was that tangrams enabled these third graders to become more active and confident thinkers, creators, solution finders, and problem solvers.
subject codes .ELE

Jane Lueders
Integrating Thinking, Whole Language and Drama
1992, September
Directed by Patricia A. Cordeiro
This thesis presents a framework aims at providing learning experiences to develop effective independent thinkers. Effective independent thinkers are not only able to accumulate knowledge but can use and apply that knowledge in a variety of situations and contexts. The framework is based at the intersection of three perspectives on learning: critical and creative thinking, whole language and drama.
Creative thinking works with critical thinking by using fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration and heuristic processes to open up options to be evaluated in order to make a decision to do or believe something. Whole language involves building a structure and climate that promote literacy and the authentic use of language. This is accomplished by teaching students to work cooperatively, encouraging them to take risks, helping them see ideas and concepts in context, and helping them see ideas and concepts in context, and helping them develop responsibility for their learning. Drama provides an opportunity for students to become immersed in a learning experience through the techniques of role play, mantle of the expert, and simulation.
Through the combination of these perspectives on learning, students learn to use the processes of problem solving, inquiry and reflection. Problem solving involves defining a problem, deciding on possible solutions and choosing the best solution. Inquiry is questioning in order to look differently at what is known or in order to find out more. Reflection allows for the development of metacognition, thereby helping students become aware of and in control of their own thinking processes.
A sample curriculum for intermediate elementary grades lasting approximately three weeks to three months is contained in the Appendix of the thesis. This curriculum takes the form of a simulation in which students assume the roles of marine biologists. They work in teams to study the marine life around the hypothetically newly-risen continent of Atlantis. The curriculum stresses the integrated use of both content and skills as they are used in real life.
Descriptions and definitions of the learning perspectives and processes are also included. The commonalties between critical and creative thinking, whole language and drama are discussed in both a theoretical manner and as they apply to the sample curriculum.
subject codes .CUL.ELE

Halima Madden
Shadows: An example of conceptual change
1997, May
Directed by Delores Gallo
This paper looks at a child's conception of shadows at two different times, one year apart. During the period and even during the interviews, there was evidence of the unfolding of a conceptual change.
Questions were asked to find out what the child knew about the shadows. Initially, responses indicated that the child believed shadows exist continuously, and had object and life-like qualities that pertain to the self and the senses. These beliefs were used to show that shadows do not exist continuously, and are not material objects that can be felt and can be seen but then disappear. This is a difficult paradox for the child to understand. The child had some ideas of how shadows were created by the interaction of light and objects. However, specific beliefs and causal explanations about how shadows reflect the absence of lights (and object block the path of light) were not yet clearly developed. In places the child could not give a full explanation of these paradoxes - saying "it is funny and weird."
I argue that the use of analogical comparison and generative questioning can encourage the development of new beliefs. Asking a critical thinking question - Can you hold a shadow? can encourage the child to maintain own beliefs whilst searching for new solutions to change initial beliefs.
subject codes.ELE

Jonathon Mahoney
Communicative Competence and Communicative Ethics
1996, June
Directed by Arthur B. Millman
My primary goal in this thesis is to show that Jurgen Habermas's formal pragmatics and communicative ethics offer an important contribution to theoretical issues concerning rationality, communication and moral theory.
Formal pragmatics involves an inquiry into the conditions for the possibility of mutual understanding. Since language is the primary medium through which two or more persons achieve mutual understanding, formal pragmatics is a theory about communication. According to Habermas, the success of mutual understanding presupposes that all participants in communicative practices recognize the rational features of speech. A communicatively competent speaker is one who at least tacitly recognizes that every utterance capable of contributing to mutual understanding rests on the presupposition that reasons can be offered to defend or criticize the utterance.
Communicative ethics involves an attempt to construe traditional formalistic/deontological moral theory within a communicative framework. This, in turn, is premised on the claim that interpersonal relations are central to moral deliberation and dispute resolution and that communication is central to interpersonal relations. The goal of a theory of communicative ethics is to provide a procedure according to which participants involved in the public discussion of norms can evaluate proposed moral claims in a fair and impartial manner.
I argue that formal pragmatics offers a plausible account of the competences of every speaker capable of participating in successful communication. My task in examining Habernas's theory of communication, moreover, is to show that communicative reason is built into all instances of successful communication, From this clam I go onto show that the idea of communicative reason can be used as the foundation for a moral theory. My task in examining communicative ethics is to demonstrate its adequacy as a moral theory, an adequacy highlighted by the communicative ethical interpretation of a procedure for adjudicating moral norms.
The greatest challenge to Habermas's work is posed by postmodern critics who reject the universalism that undergirds the concept of communicative reason. Universalism is the view that non-arbitrary principles for rationally assessing competing claims, principles that are valid in all contexts. I briefly examine some of the standard social and political objection to universalism (e,g. that it mistakenly conflates particularity with universality) in an attempt to show that at the very least the debate on universalism as not yet ended.
subject codes .COM.MOR

Patricia Manley
Empathic Role Taking in Social Studies: A Fifth Grade Curriculum Based on Critical and Creative Thinking
1992, May
Directed by Delores Gallo
This thesis evolved from a unit of work created by the author to engage and enhance the critical and creative thinking of her fifth grade students. It is composed of a series of activities; however, special emphasis is placed on a role playing activity in which students took on personas of children of the l770s, focusing on the events of the Boston Massacre. The author contends that empathic response was a factor in the mastery and application of particular critical and creative thinking skills introduced at this grade level. The author further contends that the development of empathy in individuals is crucial for the continuance of a productive and humane society and that his development can, and should be, a vital part of the educational setting.
Theories of those prominent in the fields of critical and creative thinking, empathy, and classroom drama are considered, and connections regarding the implementation of these fields in the classroom are discussed. It is suggested that critical and creative thinking in l0 and ll year old children can be enhanced through role taking strategies.
The implementation of an original social studies curriculum composed of six activities to foster critical and creative thinking is described. These activities include schema development, promotion of cognitive organization, content reading, assignment of general and specific personas, role playing, and evaluation. The author summarizes what went well, what could be improved, and what could be done differently in each of the activities
Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of students' participation in the role taking activity is presented. Factors which influence students' success in the role taking are considered, as well as factors which may have hindered success. Competencies and dispositions of critical and creative thinking and empathy exhibited by the students in the role playing activity are reviewed. Reflections on the role taking activity and its potential as a learning strategy are put forward.
Appendices include transcriptions from the role playing active of the students in role, transcriptions of the children's reflection on the role playing activity, and a list of materials used in the curriculum unit. It is this author's hope that others who work with children will benefit from this thesis by paying particular attention to the role that empathy can play in the development of critical and creative thinking skills.

subject codes .ELE

Matt Masiero
A Critical and Creative Thinking Guide to Achieving Success in Coaching
1998, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
In thus Synthesis Project, I have examined key critical and creative thinking skills that I believe to be crucial and beneficial when trying to achieve success in coaching.
I have explained my conceptual framework when coaching basketball and my understanding of success. Three personal as well as professional influences are referred to as contributing to my coaching. Finally, I have submitted a brief overview of what you could expect to extract from this Synthesis Project.
I have given a clear and concise definition of critical thinking from expert Robert Ennis. I have also thoroughly examined the fourteen dispositions and the different abilities as stated by Ennis.
I have thoroughly described four of the six aspects of critical thinking: Language of Thinking, Thinking Dispositions, Transfer and Mental Management, as examined by Shari Tishman, David Perkins and Eileen Jay. I have given the reader an understanding of what vocabulary can be implemented to evoke critical thinking as well as being a model, explaining, encouraging interaction and providing feedback. I have explained what the five thinking dispositions of a good thinker are. Finally I examined how mental management or metacognition, can be beneficial in becoming a good critical thinker.
I have thoroughly examined creative thinking as defined by expert Teresa Amabile and have elaborated on her three components of creative thinking; domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant skills and task motivation. I have also described Maslow's fifteen characteristics of a self-actualized person and the twelve personality traits of a creative person as examined by Gary Davis.
I have examined a few of the qualifications such as education, professional and physical that can contribute to a successful coaching, In doing so I have demonstrated the correlation that exists between a successful coach and being a good critical and creative thinker.
Next, I have demonstrated what motivation is and its extrinsic and/or intrinsic contribution to the success in coaching. The reader will extract that psychological aspects such as goal setting, which includes: 1) identifying goals, 2) setting obtainable and realistic goals and 3) evaluating your goals can have a major impact on achieving success in coaching.
I have explained the impact Coach John Wooden and his Pyramid of Success has made on my coaching practice, along with my experiences since being enrolled in The Critical and Creative Thinking Program, which have led to my personal development and creation of the 27 Small Practice Details (Habits) That Make A Big Difference.
I have thoroughly described for the reader the critical and creative thinking skills I have implemented in my coaching practice and that have helped me achieve success. I advise the reader to build a successful program by developing a general Philosophy, both a Defensive and Offensive Philosophy, Administrative Responsibilities, Hoop Scoops: Keeping Current and 3 Point: The Old Fashioned Way.
Finally, I have posed three critical and creative thinking questions to engage the reader in metacognition about their coaching practice.
subject codes .SPO

Carla Theresa Mattioli
Awakening Creative Behavior: Contributions from the Rudolf Steiner Method
1984, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
In my efforts to understand the fundamental elements of Rudolf Steiner's (Waldorf) Educational Philosophy for the purposes of writing this thesis, I realized early on that the process of attaining such understanding would necessarily require much more than reading and comprehension on an abstract, intellectual level. In order that I might experience the principles of Waldorf Education in motion, as they were designed to be experimented, I would need to immerse myself into the experience of the arts and self-study with my mind, physical body and emotions, as well as to read and study the works of those how understand Waldorf Education. My role as researcher, then, required that I become a participant-observer, in order that I might explain Waldorf Education through my own personal involvement and experience.
My research exploration included visitations at a number of Waldorf Schools in the New England area, to observe first, sixth, eighth and high school classes. Subjects ranged from Geometry and Music to Bookbinding, Weaving, American Studies and Woodcarving. I was able to conduct informal interviews of Waldorf students, parents and teachers during my travels.
In addition to visiting schools, I participated in quite a number of workshops and seminars designed for Waldorf...
subject codes .THR

Anne McDonough
Children's Safety Zone and Gateways to Life-long Learning
1994, May
Directed by Lynn Dhority
The major purpose of this thesis is to examine the relationship between a psychologically safe environment, which the author has termed Children's Safety Zone, and positive learning structures. Together they can of a practical new model for decentralized teaching. Educators create the conditions in which learning discoveries can be made; therefore, an exploration into children's motivations, achievements, learning abilities, intelligences, and values can affect how to effectively approach their learning discoveries.
It is the assumption of this thesis that education needs to produce learners who have encountered and acquired a sense of responsibility and control of their own learning. Motivating students to listen to their own ways of learning involves teacher receptivity and a shift of the center of attention to the child. The author's belief is that this type of learning can be a wonder-filled, life long process, particularly when stressful input is decreased in the learning process.
Learning that is meaningful and child-based provides experiences that are not saddled with negative, stressful encounters that only end up sabotaging a child's cognitive operations. Creative visualization and the use of imagery can also be used to reduce the barriers of stress and anxiety.
Teaching of thematic units, with emphasis on processes, offers another possible means for making natural connections in the brain that facilitate discovery and learning. Teachers can further tie into the brain's natural pattern making potential by linking subject areas to one another, as well as by teaching across grade levels.
The author's own personal learning discoveries are perceived as new models for the role of educators as facilitator of learning. Finally, the relationship of learning to thought transformation is explored through the Dialogue Process, a unique approach to life-long learning. The author suggests that these elements can be woven together successfully, creating a new fabric made of community of learners at all ages.
hayes
subject codes .ELE

Candace McDuffie
Our Mouths on Paper: A Critical Look at the Educational Value, Social Importance, and Self- Exploration Stemming from Slam Poetry
2011, August
Directed by Carol Smith
Upon entering the Critical and Creative Thinking Program, I was unsure of my strengths as an educator. I have always been interested in working with younger children, and found a career in education quite rewarding. Still, merging my personal interests with my professional ones seemed like a task that was not important for my growth as a teacher. Soon into my endeavors as a CCT student, I realized that intertwining both worlds is what keeps me motivated as a teacher and my students interested as learners. // This synthesis allows me to explore the arena of Slam poetry beyond a superficial level— to really understand what it means to align my writing with the works of others that are so introspective and provocative. As the CCT program has highlighted various times in each course that I have taken over the years, reflection is the key to growth. Therefore, reflecting about past courses and the curriculum/activities that were developed during them as well as on my own activities as a slam poet helps to pinpoint the direction I would like to take in activities I plan for my students in the future. This paper also compares and contrasts Beat Poetry and Slam Poetry, since both have inspired me as a writer and have characteristics that can be used in curricular activities for preschool children. I also decipher my own thought processes by analyzing my own writing, and ultimately concoct creative writing endeavors for my students. These will hopefully foster an environment that promotes individuality and appreciation of different human experiences. subject codes.WRL
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Mary McGurn
Student's stress: It's Real and Manageable
2011, May
Directed by Carol Smith
I have been a dental hygiene professor at a Community College from the last seven years as well as a 2001 alumna from the same dental hygiene program. The dental hygiene curriculum is demanding, and it can be overwhelming to manage the heavy work load. My goal as a teacher is to help the dental hygiene students find their own way to reduce their stressful thoughts and behaviors as a result of the overwhelming amount of work while learning. There are different levels of stress that the dental hygiene college students must learn to manage in order to think critically and creatively and make better decisions. I began thinking about my synthesis with the materials that I have gathered throughout my educational journey in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program as well as my students' experiences and my past experiences as a dental hygiene student. The initial goal was to try to reduce students' stress through humor, which evolved into researching more about how our body functions and malfunctions under stress. While researching the negative effects of stress, I discovered more interesting material about how one can reframe thinking patterns and become self aware of our own emotional intelligence to reduce our own stress or eliminate it completely. I thought about how much of this information was applicable and interesting ways students can benefit if they knew how, when, where and why they should utilize these tools to reduce the stress that may hinder their thinking. So, I decided to create an extensive 6-part stress reduction workshop for the students that may support and guide the students to effectively manage their anxiety in order to think clearly. It is significant for students to know when to use their resources to think rationally even when in the face of stressful events. The initial step in the development, implementation and dissemination of stress reduction techniques has been a work in progress. The toolkit consists of teaching students about the psychological and physiological effects of stress, the negative behaviors associated with chronic stress, the positive effects of utilizing stress reduction strategies and problem-solving techniques to ultimately improve overall health and enhance the students' learning outcomes. The toolkit consists of the strategies that combine physical and mental aspects: humor, exercise (including yoga and meditation), positive thinking, clear goal setting, attention to nutrition, and sleeping behaviors to reduce or eliminate stress. Timely interventions, observations and ongoing analysis will be included in my future steps. subject codes.TCE

Lucille (Lucy) McKain
Analysis of McCarthy Learning Styles and Integration of Critical and Creative Thinking
1993, September
Directed by John R. Murray
Bernice McCarthy has devised an instructional and organizational model that has been used in the United States since l979. The model addresses an experiential cycle of learning that takes one from personal meaning to creativity. The use of this model helps people to understand and respect others, to communicate, and to think at higher levels.
The thesis offers the McCarthy model as a foundation for structuring learning experiences. It begins with a literature review which discusses the theoretical origins of McCarthy's model. In evaluating this model for its inherent critical and creative thinking skills, however, the author finds several areas that could be improved. These areas are designing activities which intentionally teach specific thinking skills along with subject content and providing more opportunities for student metacognition along with identification of the thinking skills and processes. The author further recommends that the use of free/open ended exploration in the start of any activity or exercise, would improve self directed learning along with critical and creative thinking skills and organizational skills. This may lead to greater student interest and learning.
Attention to these ideas is found in the author's restructuring of a McCarthy sample lesson. The author also fashions general guidelines for the further integration of thinking skill practices concerning individual styles of learning. Further application is provided for the reader in the author's development of one critical and creative thinking skills lesson that is imbedded in learning about chicken feathers. Lessons activities incorporate cooperative learning strategies that foster group decision making skills.
The fundamental requirements of our democratic society provide an effective rationale for focusing on thinking. Democracy, rests on informed, thoughtful creative citizens. Teaching for thinking and creativity is essential and must include all learning styles. Teaching to this end can result with skilled thinkers, who are able to cope better with personal and societal problems, and furthermore, live as innovative lifelong learners who remain open to new experiences and ideas throughout life.
subject codes .ELE

Margaret McPartland
Critical and creative thinking in a beginning adult literacy classroom
1997, December
Directed by
subject codes .TCE.WRL

Robert B. Mendelsohn
20 Questions Toward Better Thinking: A Look at Internet Based Learning
1997, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
Synthesis
subject codes .TEC

Diana Metsisto
Cooperative Learning on Mathematical Problem Solving: Reflections by a Traditional Teacher and Her Students
1990, December
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
As our society becomes more technologically complex, the educational system preparing our students to become citizens of this society must adapt to met changing demands. Mathematical literacy of the 21st century will require a different model of mathematics education than that which served in the past.
This thesis argues for a model of mathematics education which includes as key components: problem solving, question posing, cooperative learning, concrete manipulatives, and teaching for thinking. This new model sets forth guidelines for a facilitative approach to the teaching of mathematics as opposed to the more traditional, authoritative model. This facilitative model is based on the constructivist view of learning and is presented in contrast to one based on the behaviorist view.
Ultimately, it is in the mathematics classroom that any changes in the mathematics educational system must be played out. The author discusses her implementation of a series of lessons with seventh graders, which incorporated the key components of the facilitative model listed above. The focus is on the changes required of the teacher and the difficulties encountered by a traditional teacher attempting to move toward a more facilitative classroom.
Issues of sharing classroom control, of student-teacher interaction, of curriculum design, of lesson planning, and of functioning within the framework of a traditional school are delineated and reflected upon. Recognition of the intrinsic difficulty of the change required is key to the development of a view of the teacher as a reflective learner. The teacher in the classroom must recognize the ongoing process of growth and change required to remain an effective facilitator of learning and must continually search for unique ways to support that growth in both self and others.
subject codes .SCI.ELE

Cynthia Mignini
Geometry in action: A curriculum unit utilizing dynamic geometry software to enhance students' comprehension
2001, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
The paper identifies two critical obstacles to student success in a traditional geometry classroom and examines the role dynamic geometry software can play in overcoming these obstacles. The two concerns are that students complete geometry classes with minimal understanding due to low teacher and parental expectations and that students lack visualization skills. Student investigations in a dynamic geometry environment address both of these issues in that they raise expectations and provide a visualization aide. Additionally, dynamic geometry software produces precise, manipulable sketches that represent a continuum of related geometric figures on which students can base conjectures.
The focus of the project is a curriculum unit that was implemented in a high school geometry elective, Geometry in Action. A total of seven students were enrolled in the semester long elective that focused on student investigations in a dynamic geometry environment. The curriculum unit investigated the medians, altitudes, perpendicular bisectors, and angle bisectors of a triangle and the points of concurrency. The unit also emphasized critical thinking skills to maximize student comprehension. The integrated thinking skills included predicting results of manipulations, identifying characteristics, making decisions, forming and justifying conjectures, and seeing relationships.
The discussion of each of the nine lessons in the unit contains the conceptual emphasis of the lesson, the key thinking processes incorporated in the lesson, a detailed description of the lesson, and a wrap-up activity. Actual student work and feedback are included within the paper. Also included are the author's reflections on the execution of the lessons and suggestions for improvement and adaptations in future implementations.
subject codes .SCI.MSE

MaryAnne Miller
Helping Adolescents to Address the Moral Dimensions of Sexuality
1991, December
Directed by
This thesis presents a rationale for an adolescent sex education which better attends to moral issues and it proposes practical suggestions for classroom strategies to promote moral thinking. The central argument of this thesis is that helping adolescents to become better moral thinkers will also help them to make more responsible and informed decisions about sex.
This thesis focuses on five major areas of sex education. The analysis of current practices in adolescent sex education places particular emphasis on AIDS/HIV education to research what is being done by school systems in Boston and in Massachusetts to encourage classroom examination of sexual attitudes and behavior. The examination of adolescents' impressions about the purpose of sex education identifies a strong desire for assistance with understanding the moral dimensions of sexuality. The review of prevalent thinking related to moral education and moral development discusses values clarification and Kohlberg's theory of moral development to identify compatible strategies for adolescent sex education. The presentation of instructional prototypes designed to promote moral inquiry, discussion, and decision making illustrates ways for sex education to help teenagers examine the moral dimensions of sexuality. The discussion of expanded responsibilities associated with employing moral thinking in adolescent sex education enumerates necessary classroom, institutional, and community linkages.
This thesis also develops four distinctive notions about promoting moral thinking. First, it calls for instruction which addresses teenagers' concerns about sexuality-specific and general moral issues. Second, in contrast to Kohlberg's view, it argues that moral thinking involves more than just reasoning. To encourage well-rounded moral thinking, instruction should also concentrate on encouraging feeling, valuing, judging, and decision making. Third, this thesis investigates two structural modifications to Kohlberg's classroom approach. It abandons the abstract distillation of moral problems and contrived choices typical of Kohlberg's dilemma model in favor of employing open-ended moral problems which place greater emphasis on circumstances and events encountered by teenagers. Finally, this thesis examines the issues of indoctrination and neutrality. It proposes implementation of guided neutrality, a strategy coined by the author, to offer students guidance within a principled exploration of moral issues.
subject codes .MOR.CTY.MED

Victoria Morse
Merging Instruction in Thinking and Writing
1990, December
Directed by Steven H. Schwartz
Two largely independent bodies of literature exist on both teaching to promote students' critical and creative thinking abilities and teaching to promote the shift between novice and more expert writing. The author looks closely at both bodies of literature and merges common principles to create an extended curriculum unit designed to teach simultaneously toward expert thinking and expert writing. The unit contains such diverse activities as: l) an acrostic puzzle 2) reading articles on themes related to Hamlet;3) the use of dialectical notebooks;3) an explicit investigation into the nature of problem solving; 4) using emphatic role-playing to bring the play to life on video; and 5) use of writing "think sheets" to help concretize the expert writing process and give students practice in using it.
With the active collaboration of an experiences instructor, the curriculum unit was implemented in a 12th grade advanced placement English Literature class and evaluated in terms of its effect on: l)students' problem-solving orientation; 2)student attitude toward both learning and writing; 3)the quality of student writing; 4)students' metacognitive understanding of both problem solving and writing; and 5)the quality of student-teacher interaction.
Analysis took the form of case-studies of five students chosen to represent five basic types of change in writing ability that occurred in the class as a whole. Interviews with the instructors contributed significantly to the analysis as well. Findings were that with the exception of one of the case study students, all students made significant, and often dramatic improvement in their writing, above and beyond what the teacher would have expected from the same caliber of student in years past.
While some unit activities were more effective than others, it did appear that students worked better when they understood the principles involved and were given more freedom to be in charge of their own thinking and writing. Likewise, the process of informing, instituting, and closely examining an intervention had a very beneficial effect on the teacher and his interactions with students. Such a process of implementation holds considerable potential for changing the nature of traditional teacher/researcher partnership.
subject codes .WRL.MSE

Chris Morton
Creative Problem Solving: Nine Model Lessons on the Rainforest
1992, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
The need for imparting critical and creative thinking skills to students has never been greater. No longer can students be expected to absorb passively each aspect of their education without the means of understanding more fully the nature and content of the learning experience.
The amount of information currently available for teaching purposes alone is truly staggering. Just as the instructor must choose the most appropriate material for a curriculum, so too must the student decide what will be the moist useful to study from this endeavor.
Teachers need to become developers of critical and creative thinking skills, and advocates of interdependence, teamwork, and interdisciplinary thinking. They should also see themselves as managers of learning experiences to help students accomplish these goals. Such managing of students' learning should result in the individual student deriving some proficiency at creative problem solving.
The selection of the tropical rainforest as the focus for this critical and creative thinking curriculum offered sixth grade students a timely and relevant topic which they were able to investigate with enthusiasm. With each succeeding lesson, students gained greater confidence in taking responsibility for their own learning. This confidence was reflected in class discussions and group projects.
Fundamental to this curriculum was the use of well established strategies for teaching creative problem solving. These included the use of knowledge webs, visualizations, simulations, guided imagery, role playing and analogies.
Key to the success of this program was the decision to have students work primarily in groups rather than individually. This strategy promoted greater productivity, bolstered student confidence, and improved class discussions. This unit serves as an example of how critical and creative thinking programs, when offered to young students, can serve as a valuable foundation for their overall academic success.
subject codes .ELE

Ryan P. Mott
A Social Constructivist Approach To Teaching High School Philosophy
2001, May
Directed by Arthur Millman
Genuine democracy implies a responsibility for that democracy to educate its participants to be able to think to the best of their ability about complex, controversial issues and concepts. Teaching philosophy to public high school students (who are already or are about to become participants in this democracy) in an approach consistent with social constructivist pedagogy is one compelling way that this issue can be approached. Such a methodology would place an emphasis on dialogue, inquiry, and community, as well as on real-world, contextual learning.
The social constructivist approach, grounded in the psychological work of Lev Vygotsky (1999), views knowledge as something that is constructed by the learner through the process of reconceptualization. As the learner is exposed to new information, it either confirms or conflicts with previously held conceptions. The goal of the educator is to provide opportunities for this type of knowledge construction.
This can be accomplished by focusing on dialogue in the classroom. Dialogue encourages the social interaction or "discourse" that is necessary for this process. However, dialogue in this case is taken to be a particular type of inquiry as detailed by Matthew Lipman (1991). Dialogue, according to Lipman, consists of a "community of inquiry" where the participants are engaged in trying to gain a greater understanding about something problematical. Aside from this conception of community as the "community of inquiry," community also plays another prominent role.
In order to provide the relevance necessary for student engagement, social constructivist theory emphasizes the utilization of contextual, "real-world" problems. The students' community becomes the context in which they learn and engage with philosophical problems. Connection to the students' community and therefore to themselves provides the relevance necessary for engagement. However, proper attention must also be given to both the traditional problems of philosophy as well as the discipline's textual history.
A social constructivist approach to teaching high school philosophy must emphasize the use of dialogue (as a type of inquiry) in the classroom as well as contextually relevant problems. Community, in terms of both the "community of inquiry" and also the greater community of which the learner is a part, must act as the foundation for classroom dialogue and learning. Community, therefore, provides the context by which students learn as well as the mode in which they learn.
Also provided is a classroom example that demonstrates how to transform these theories into practice. In this exercise issues surrounding human cloning are utilized in order to introduce issues of identity.
subject codes.LRN.MSE

Melissa Moynihan
Developing My Knowledge and Experiential Understanding Towards a Creative Contribution to Work & Family / Life Balance
2004, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
Work and family / life balance, which I define as the need to strike a balance between work on one side and family and the rest of one's life on the other, is an area that is important to me personally and very relevant in today's society. The typical American household consists of families where most of the adult members are employed outside of the home. Though I began my project with a narrow focus that concentrated on family friendly practices in the workplace, my research led me to a broader understanding of people's life experiences. Workplace design and the way our culture conducts business must become more progressive and adaptive to the realities that shape our daily lives and our families.
While researching the experts' opinions on workplace culture, I also emphasized the importance of real life people and their real life stories of hope and struggle. I intermeshed the research and findings of organized efforts with the powerful nature of the people's voice. Turning my focus to the stories provided by societies workforce resulted in an unforeseen, yet very therapeutic effect on my evolving project. Initially, I facilitated a focus group of parents that I brought together to brainstorm creative solutions to life's challenges. Soon thereafter, I was determined to incorporate the empathetic dialogue of those individuals into all of my future work. I went on to design a group facilitation process, with the goal of creating a University of Massachusetts Boston pilot program, promoting family and life-friendly practices. Lastly, I implemented a story-collecting Work & Family/Life Balance website. This website served as the basis for creating a constituency-building Book of Hope, full of the diverse stories originally submitted to the website.
In the end, the strength of my synthesis project is the collective sharing and collaborative nature that has been compiled together and is now available to support anyone who may need it. The underlying message, reiterated over and over again, in story after story, is that all of us share this common desire to improve upon the way we mesh our work lives with the rest of our lives. Fortunately, we can all learn from each other in the hopes of improving the quality of our lives.
subject codes.COR

Jeneen Mucci
Mentoring Towards Resilient Thought
2009, December
Directed by Nina Greenwald
The focus of my Synthesis Project is the development of a Curriculum Guide that outlines the importance of building relationships with young people that are meaningful, supported, structured and collaborative. In developing this guide, I felt it was essential to create a framework that will support my work within youth development, for young people ages 9-19, in order to scaffold learning and foster opportunities for resilient thought. In addition to supporting these learning opportunities, I also felt it was important to develop a foundation from which the staff that I supervise and work with, understand the importance of their role and the impact relationship-building can have on these young people. This guide promotes the development of youth serving professionals as reflective practitioners and mentors in order to build a structured and supportive experience for both the mentor and the young people (mentees), that is intentional and reflects the experience, needs and interests of those within the relationship.
In the field of Positive Youth Development, youth-serving professionals acknowledge that the most important relationship in the life of a young person, outside of the family unit, is a positive and supportive non-parental adult who assumes the role of a mentor. The role of a mentor, in the natural setting of an after-school or out-of-schooltime program, not only helps to foster opportunities that build life and career skills, but also provides the kind of support that young people need towards developing resilient thought. Fostering opportunities that allow young people to develop both a resilient core and an optimistic outlook are essential when promoting the development of perseverance that can guide these young people to persist in the face of adversity, hardship and/or change. This guide also identifies important ways to support and enhance my own work in fostering opportunities to encourage resiliency-building within youth development. It is also essential in developing opportunities that enrich out-of-schooltime quality programming and staff growth through the development of a framework that encourages and scaffolds thinking and learning to promote the development of dispositions from a strengths-based approach.
This project highlights the importance of the mentor/mentee relationship, the process and the developmental tools that can be utilized and modified. It also identifies ways of transferring dispositions that promote perseverance in other areas of their lives towards a holistic approach to fostering resilient thought. Within out-of-schooltime Programs and through a Positive Youth Development philosophy, mentoring and encouraging young people towards the development of resilient thought, is a process that can allow for authentic learning and living in order for young people to persevere in an ever-changing world.
subject codes.CTY.FRP
(full text)
Badshah Mumtaz
The role of examination freform as a catalyst in directing educational change in India
1997, June
Directed by
subject codes .CUL.LRN

Marlene (Marla) Murray
Metacognitive Strategies for Vocabulary and Concept Learning: A Framework Using Content Area Textbooks
1992, September
Directed by Patricia Cordeiro
The goal of metacognitive approach to teaching vocabulary is to enable the learner to acquire, retain and expand word knowledge effectively and continuously throughout a lifetime. Strategies are developed for decontextualization and relational structuring of words and knowledge about words. Executive controls are developed for the purpose of managing, retaining and recalling word knowledge.
Metacognitive strategies and critical thinking processes are defined, demonstrated and practiced in a highly interactive classroom. Chapter l provides an overview of the problem, a statement of the objectives, a synopsis of the research conducted and highlights the major findings. Chapter II examines the process of learning words. Emphasis is placed upon the role of prior knowledge in independent word learning, use of metacognitive components by "experts" and the role of individuals' schema for organizing, storing and accessing word knowledge.
Chapter III highlights the significant research in the fields of teaching methods, cognitive theories and critical thinking applied to the discipline of vocabulary acquisition. Chapter IV describes in more detail the research base which most influenced this author. Sternberg's development of external cues for learning words in context and a group of researchers who advocate an independent work learning approach were most influential. Chapter V establishes the rationale, criteria, and features of the curriculum framework. It present examples of concept-based teaching which is overlaid and integrated into more conventional practices. The objective is a smooth transition into concept-based teaching and learning.
Chapter VI presents a model of representative classroom exercises based on a twelfth grade economics text which illustrate the curriculum framework. Chapter VII discusses the need for further research into the development of pragmatic teaching strategies which relate to how people best learn words. Scientific studies of possible breakthrough teaching techniques, together with the potential for further development and possible testing of the model are described in the concluding section of this thesis.
subject codes .MSE

Tamami Nakashima
A Plan For A Community Education Center In Japan
2003, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
This synthesis sketches the process of my evolution in finding wholeness within myself and in connection to others-as an individual, member of society, and practitioner in the context of planning a community education center in Japan. The writing describes my journey towards creating my own niche through recognizing the misfit between my style and my surrounding environment, believing in what was seen by others as a shortcoming as originality, absorbing information from a variety of environments and reflecting on it, understanding my trans-cultural history in Japan and the United States, receiving consistent support from and communicating with people who are accepting, learning from a model-the Cambridge Center for Adult Education-that resembled my vision, thinking outside the box, and estimating the forthcoming obstacles . It reveals how I have synthesized the above to let something new emerge. The writing is comprised of five major chapters; my background, my reasons for wanting to found a community education center, what I learned from my internship experience, my thinking into the future about what kind of an institution I want to create, and finally, the challenges I might face and my need for personal growth. This project should be a useful reference not only for someone who is interested in a similar venture, but anyone who seeks to start something for the good of oneself and all by utilizing one's originality.
subject codes .CTY.TCE

Katherine Nauman-Borton
Thinking And Learning Through Creative Movement In The Classroom
1996, December
Directed by John Murray
In the past decade, the American school system has come under scrutiny. American children are scoring lower than children from other countries on standardized tests. What can be done to ensure that American students are able to compete in the technological world of today?
Many educators believe that in order for children to fulfill their potential, they must be given more than information and knowledge. They must be taught how to think, how to use the knowledge they learn in school. Researchers such as Robert H. Ennis, 1987, 1993) and Matthew Lipman, 1995) believe thinking must be advanced in the schools. It must be practiced. Teachers must challenge their students and provide them with opportunities to make decisions, solve problems and be creative.
Other researchers such as Harvard University's Howard Gardner believe students will learn better if all of their "intelligences" are nurtured. This theory advances the belief
that there is more to intelligence than an inborn general intelligence factor. The Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory believes "that human cognitive competence is better described in terms of a set of abilities, talents, or mental skills, which we call 'intelligences" (Gardner, 1993 p. 15). The seven identified are the musical, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal and intrapersonal. Gardner and his colleagues hold that students will benefit from instruction incorporating more than the verbal and logical intelligences.
This thesis examines the aforementioned trends of teaching thinking skills and utilizing a multiple intelligence approach in the classroom. It then presents creative movement as a classroom activity which stimulates "intelligences" often overlooked in the classroom while also promoting critical and creative thinking skills in children. It has been shown in studies that movement can stimulate a child's interest in school (Fowler, 1994). Creative movement stimulates decision making, problem solving and communication skills as well as the creative affinity needed to produce excellent thinkers.
All of this research culminates in the development of a workshop for elementary school teachers. The workshop is designed to introduce teachers to creative movement so they have the knowledge and confidence to utilize creative movement as an educational tool within their own classrooms.
subject codes .ELE

Elizabeth H. Naylor
Original Curriculum for Encouraging Meaningful Community Service in High School Students
2008, December
Directed by Arthur Millman
In this paper I have explored the importance of community service experiences and ultimately created a guide for implementing a high quality and meaningful community service program at the high school level. This paper begins with an initial discussion of my personal experiences in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, when I discovered firsthand the importance of personal reflection and sharing. I have defined community as a group of people with common place and common interest. Community service is an action within the community that betters the community in some way. The reader will find examples of communities coming together to make a change and examples of individuals reflecting on personal experiences. These examples highlight the importance of community service and reflection as well as showing the reader how to be involved and how to reflect.
I have written this paper for educational administrators, teachers, and community members to be used as a stepping stone for the creation and implementation of a high school community service program. Typical programs today require a certain number of hours completed by each student before graduation but do not specify the type of community service or even afford the students the opportunity to present to others what they have done. The program that I have laid out encourages the sharing of experiences as a way to both appreciate the student efforts as well as give each student a chance to inspire others.
Within the body of the paper the reader will find a Teacher Handbook as well as a Student Guidebook. These two books are intended as a guideline for proper implementation of a thoughtful community service program. The Teacher Handbook supplies the reader with tips and instructions for helping students in a yearlong community service program. This handbook includes a schedule of monthly meetings with a basic outline for the implementation of each of the meetings. The Student Handbook is written to enhance the learning of each participating student. The handbook includes phone numbers for local community service organizations as well as space for each student to take notes when connecting with community service opportunities. Each of the books has been written generically for the purpose of this paper but can easily be modified to more closely fit a particular school or community.
Community service is an important part of my life. Each experience introduces me to new people and ideas and each experience has challenged me to do better in my life. In each community service project that I have been a part of I have certainly taken away more than I have given. It is my intent that the paper I have written will encourage and inspire the reader to partake in community service opportunities and to reflect and share about those experiences.
subject codes.MSE.SOC
(full text)
Barbara D. Nelson
Restructuring for Mathematical Power: Techniques for Teaching Thinking in Algebra
1992, December
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Recent critiques of mathematics education have resulted in proposals to restructure learning and teaching for mathematical power. The new vision pictures the classroom as a community of learners where mathematics come alive as a useful tool in our technological society. however, many high school mathematics teachers are struggling to understand and implement the fundamental instructional change inherent in the vision. Written from the perspective of a high school teacher for experienced high school mathematics teachers, this thesis attempts to bridge vision and practice.
To clarify the vision, current literature on reform in mathematics education is synthesized into a framework of eight instructional targets. Four of the targets focus on student behavior indicative of mathematical power: deep understanding of concepts and schemas, mathematical thinking, communication about mathematics and a positive disposition toward mathematics. The other four targets focus on the instructional setting: student-centered tasks, a variety of work formats, mathematical tools and assessment alternatives. Suggestions for each target help teachers generate ideas for implementation.
The framework is based on seven learning principles synthesized from current research: l) knowledge is constructed: 2) all students can grapple with complex ideas; 3) conceptual learning is effective; 4) prior knowledge influences learning; 5) learning is a social act; 6) change in cognitive structure is a goal of teaching and 7) students must be actively engaged to learn.
To implement the vision, the recommended strategy for experienced teachers is to expand their repertoire of instructional methods by focusing on teaching thinking. Guidelines for a model of thinking, levels of curriculum planning and relevant issues in cognitive education are incorporated into a lesson plan model.
As tactical examples of the implementation strategy, three techniques designed to develop ;the thinking processes of classifying, pattern finding and concept formation are modeled using Algebra I content. The presentation of the techniques is structured to emphasize general instructional decisions made by the teacher in order to enhance transfer to particular classrooms.
Two underlying convictions are: experienced teachers attempting reform must focus on the process of instruction; and successful reform depends on teacher reflection leading to ownership of the vision.
subject codes .SCI

Barbara B. Nelson
Teacher as Researcher: A Two-Tiered Model
1992, December
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
This thesis focuses on an investigation I undertook to enhance my effectiveness to teach mathematics, a subject to which I was assigned, but for which I had not been formally trained. It describes my attempt to construct knowledge through the clinical interview method as to how middle school students construct knowledge about integers and think about the knowledge they are constructing. On one level, I was attempting to learn how students come to understand the concept of integers; on a level, I was creating an understanding of how a teacher can construct knowledge about the construction of knowledge. This two-tiered model cast me in the roles of teacher, learner and researcher; and my students in the roles of learner and teacher.
Six sixth-grade students, interviewed in groups of two each, for four or five sessions, used a model where yellow chips represent positive integers, and blue chips represent negative integers. The investigation was concerned with how children construct knowledge about adding and subtracting integers, what they grasp easily or find difficult, what prior knowledge or misconceptions they bring, what connections they make to real-world applications, how they think about their thinking, how they create problems to solve, and how well they teach fourth graders.
The study allowed me to concentrate on aspects of teaching mathematics emphasized by the Standards (l989) of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: using manipulative models, problem solving, communicating, connecting and reasoning. Three non-traditional techniques were used for evaluating children's understanding: reverse processing, metacognition, and the child as teacher.
As background, this thesis reviews relevant literature on Constructivisn, meaning of knowledge, critical and creative thinking, the teacher's role, clinical interviewing, and representational models. Analyses of videotaped teacher/student scripts and other components of the interviewing process provided glimpses into the minds of children who learn in different ways (including interesting misconceptions held). Implications of this two-tiered model reinforce my belief that knowledge is not something passive to be given, but active to be created and re-created by both teacher and student on a day-to-day basis in the classroom.
subject codes .MSE

Rita Nethersole (Poussaint)
Multiculturalism as a Mechanism For Improving Thinking
1999, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
subject codes .CUL

Nickerson
Critical & Creative Thinking in Collaboration, Innovation and Learning
1997, December
Directed by
Table of contents: Purpose / Other influences 1992 - 1997 / Significant learnings during this period / What pulls me now / CCT Contributions toward collaboration, innovation and learning (Synthesis / Critical Thinking / Creative Thinking / Psychology / Organizational Development / Theory of Dispute Resolution / Practicum) / Wow Criteria: An evaluation of the courses / Wishes / The next chapter: Creativity, Activism & Transformation / Addendum (Courses taken, their purpose and instructors / Papers Presented / The Prosperity Collaborative: overview and courses)
subject codes.FRP

Robert Norris
Discovering and Adapting Creative Style With Cognitive Methods
2004, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
Creativity is different for every person who utilizes it. Due to the unique nature of everyone's creativity, there exists no predominant method for developing creativity. The challenge, then, is in both determining aspects of a person's creative style as well as learning how to adapt one's methods to this individual style.
This thesis details my own struggle through this problem using my creative writing efforts as a point of comparison. In the text, I describe how Julia Cameron's book The Artist's Way began my creative efforts but could not finish them because her methods were not specific enough to my creativity. I use various critical and creative thinking tools such as free writing, supportive listening, and critical analysis to derive aspects of my creative style. Then I make the next step by creating methods that responded to these aspects. I labeled these creative writing methods the Outline method, the Character-Only method, the Nonfictional Fiction method, and finally the Two-Stage method. The Two-Stage method was almost entirely founded on the ideas that Peter Elbow discusses in his book Writing With Power . Using these methods, I arrive at a foundational structure for creativity that is both specific to my individual needs and comprehensive enough from which to base further activity.
It is my hope that readers of this thesis will be able to glean aspects of my creative journey for their own creative paths. The narrative is centered on my creative journey, but I hope that the reader will gain enough understanding of the creative person's mind so that their efforts can become more focused and fluid.
subject codes.WRL
(Full Text)

Kevin O'Brien
Coaching for Thinking and Life Skills
1994, May
Directed by
"The more technology we introduce into society, the more people will want to be with other people," concludes John Naisbitt (1982) in emphasizing the need for human touch. On a recent talk show, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, author of "Living with Death and Dying" (1981), related that she had earned many honorary degrees for her work with the terminally ill. She wondered why she had been so rewarded, saying, "All I've done is listen to the dying and hear what they say." A mother writes to the Boston Globe's Confidential Chat column (1983) asking for help in identifying ways to lover her baby more. "Can you tell me some little ways of loving my baby?" These three quotes overwhelmingly support the idea that now, as in the past, humans beings need social understanding, the capacity to give an empathetic response, and skills in solving social problems that are new to them. These needs taken together may be described as the need for a creative social response.
In everyday social activities, professional circumstances, (e.g. counselors, teachers, doctors), and industrial relations, (e.g., managers, laborers, union officials), there is a clear need for imaginative and effective social...
subject codes .THR

Tracy O'Brien
Curriculum Unit: Developing Morals and Critical and Creative Thinking Skills through the Novel: Number the Stars by Lois Lowry
1998, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
Moral education is needed in the public schools for many reasons. Violent crimes and dishonesty are rampant throughout the younger generation. David Purpel (1989), a major educator in the field of moral education, believes that we are in a cultural, political, and moral cr1818 and hence an educational crisis. He states that it is imperative that we confront the nature of this crisis. Purpel's major assertion is the critical importance of educators' broad responsibility for the state of the culture as it relates to their specific responsibility for the quality of the "educational program" (1989, 2).
Teaching moral education, using critical and creative thinking through literature, is a very interesting and efficient teaching practice. Many highly respected educators have written that critical and creative thinking should be taught in schools and they also recommend teaching moral reasoning through literature. This paper reviews the work of David Purpel, Ronald Galbraith and Thomas Jones, Thomas Lickona, Raymond Nickerson, Linda Lamme, Robert Ennis, Delores Gallo, Richard Paul, Shari Tishman, T. Tardiff and Theresa Amabile. Using these authors for my rationale, I have created an interdisciplinary curriculum unit that teaches moral education and critical and creative skills using the novel, Number The Stars by Lois Lowry (1989). In this paper, I will review literature about teaching moral education. I will offer a unit on the book, Number The Stars by Lois Lowry, in which I use the practices recommended by authors reviewed. I will also discuss the use of open-ended questions to practice and assess the concepts taught.
This paper concludes with a unit of several lessons designed to be taught in a fourth grade classroom, but it can be altered to meet the needs of any particular group of students. It is my hope that an educator can follow the format that the six lessons are developed in and continue this format to create the rest of the lessons for the novel. This unit will provide an example as teachers try to integrate these techniques and ideas into other novels and curriculum.
subject codes .MOR

Constance O'Brien
In Search of an Operational Definition of Social Creativity
??
Directed by ??
Having argued for the existence of social creativity as observed in daily life, I will proceed in chapters two through four with a selective review of the psychological literature on social cognition, empathy, and social intelligence to determine whether any of these concepts can adequately account for the behavior cited. I will proceed to identify the connections between these concepts and creativity. Examining the concepts, their relationships to each other, and the degree to which any of these concepts alone can account for imaginative social problem solving will demonstrate the need for a new...
subject codes .THR

Vilma O'Connor
Flying with Imagination: Co-Pilot of Critical and Creative Thinking
1997, December
Directed by John Murray
This thesis consists of a series of classroom activities and exercises for second grade students. The series is organized around a central theme of space exploration. All normal curriculum subjects such as mathematics, spelling, etc. are woven into the space exploration theme and can be put together by the teacher in any sequence.
Deeply imbedded in each of these enrichment tasks, there are Critical and Creative Thinking skills, strategies and techniques that will assist the students to resolve a problem, to make a decision or to conceptualize. These operations assist in creative, as well as critical thinking repeatedly.
The activities are organized around the theory that many experts believe that creative thinking and problem solving are very similar because the process of creativity is the process of excellent thinking.
Critical skills go hand in hand with creative ones; creativity is not just a matter of being different from other people, it is a matter of having a different idea that works as well or better than previous ideas. (Scriven, Beyer, 1987, p.36)
Creativity involves an imaginative element - something more than skill, which involves freedom from constraint, independent thinking and personality development. The activities and pedagogy are designed to increase pupils' confidence in themselves and in their ideas to reinforce their ability to do their own thinking thus strengthening their sense of personal power and becoming more capable of handling challenges.
The utilization of space stimulates curiosity and imagination, which should motivate and inspire students to have the love and the desire to constantly learn which is my primary goal. Their imagination will be a springboard to Critical and Creative Thinking which will expand their perspectives and assist them in employing various strategies as they acquire the knowledge and awareness of their thoughts about TG throughout their lives. Each student will have a portfolio that each will review with the teacher periodically to learn self-assessment strategies that empower their self-confidence and future learning and growth.
subject codes .ELE

William Oakes
Inventure
1988, September
Directed by
Carefully, I added the lines of the rigging and moved my pencil slowly from the crow's nest to the side railing. It was starting to look like something real, a three-masted sailing ship. As I began adding the detail on the carved bowsprit, I must not have been aware that that my fourth grade teacher had asked me a question about the explorer Magellan. This was history period and we were learning about the early explorers who had come to this continent. I expect that as I started to think about these seafarers I began to visualize what the ships looked like. Since I always carried drawing paper around, I was prepared to drift into my own mental world. My drawing skill had developed quickly through the first three grades, as was apparent by the advanced level of perspective with which I had drawn my ship. From this particular unusual point of view, one could see the design of the whole structure. I was the only one in my class who could define an object correctly from many angles. It felt good to be a little special. I had been totally absorbed in bringing this image to life, oblivious to the rest of the class staring at me or to the teacher standing over me. Suddenly startled, I looked up into her angry face. Before I could proudly reveal my masterpiece, her lightning hand reached out and grabbed my ship. I was so attached to the drawing that it felt like me she had crumpled up and thrown toward the trashcan. I remember most vividly the pain I felt as she shouted, "And don't waste paper like this in my class again." I laid my head on my folded arms, unable to hold back tears. For the rest of the period all I could hear was "waste paper like this."
subject codes .THR

Constance OBrien
In Search of an Operational Definition of Social Creativity
??
Directed by
Having argued for the existence of social creativity as observed in daily life, I will proceed in chapters two through four with a selective review of the psychological literature on social cognition, empathy, and social intelligence to determine whether any of these concepts can adequately account for the behavior cited. I will proceed to identify the connections between these concepts and creativity. Examining the concepts, their relationships to each other, and the degree to which any of these concepts alone can account for imaginative social problem solving will demonstrate the need for a new unified concept and for an integrated or multidirectional theory of social creativity.
Addressing the problem of measuring social creativity, I will conclude the paper with some suggestions for classroom appropriate activities that might facilitate the study of this concept, in a natural setting. These classroom activities may be useful as an explanatory device for the concept of social creativity.
subject codes.THR

Benjamin Okafor
Personal Experience and Professional Development Through Critical and Creative Thinking
2004, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
This synthesis describes my journey as a student in the Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) Program and shows the impact the program has had on my life. I was able to fashion a future career for myself with the help of the courses I took along that journey.
Finding the CCT Program in 1993 showed me a way to get beyond my bad undergraduate educational experience. My experience in the first two courses, Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking, was exhilarating. I was able to apply that experience and knowledge in dealing with the serious misfortunes of my family in Nigeria and building a family in Boston. The experiences when I rejoined CCT, which I describe course by course, have helped me to become a better thinker and a creative individual. I was able retrieve my long lost zeal for political activism and take the bold step of becoming an anti-corruption activist, beginning with a website dedicated to fighting corruption in Nigeria.
subject codes.RPN

Eileen Page
Exploring Graphokinesics Critically and Creatively
1993, December
Directed by John Murray
For centuries, the significance of one's handwriting, as a skill and as a projection of one's personality has evoked curiosity, enthusiasm, skepticism, anger, wonder, support and criticism. These reactions have, in turn, led to a long and complicated history of events. Over the years, many informal observations have been recorded, and many favorable and unfavorable mindsets have evolved. Research projects, trying to prove or disprove these mindsets, have been ongoing.
Being a teacher for twenty years and a graphoanalyst for eight years has provided me with the opportunity to observe and experience first hand the numerous facets of handwriting both as an art form and a science. This thesis is a culmination of those observations and experiences combined with the knowledge acquired as a student in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program.
Because of the myths, biases and strong controversies which surround the field of handwriting, it seems important to address some of these issues. This thesis explores handwriting as an art form, and as a diagnostic tool, which when combined become a form of nonverbal communication, or "graphokinesics." The main objective is to provide information about the field of handwriting which will help the reader become knowledgeable in an appreciative of the complexities of handwriting.
The evolution of people's ability to communicate graphically is an amazing one, and one which has also had many controversies and many transitions. The thesis traces the history of handwriting, as an art form and as a "soft" science, from its origin to its present day status. It reviews some of the literature, both pro and con, connected with each aspect of handwriting. It also discusses some of the uses of handwriting analysis and the training needed to practice adequately.
Also included in this thesis is an empirical study. It was created in order to explore possible connections between drawing and handwriting. Even though the results of the study were inconclusive, many valuable ideas emerged for redesigning a future study. Since drawings are so prevalently used by many counseling agencies, and handwriting can be viewed as a finely tuned form of drawing, finding a connection between these two areas no doubt will result in bringing new respect to the field of handwriting analysis. The thesis ends with a plan for a research project to help accomplish this goal.
subject codes .THR

Alison Palmucci
Born-Again Artist: Lessons, Prophets, and Visions on Developing an Identity as an Artist
2012, May
Directed by Jeremy Szteiter
Being an artist involves the creation and maintenance of an artistic identity. Because there are no specific prerequisites for becoming an artist, like academic degrees or professional licenses, anyone can call him- or herself an artist. Working as an artist differs from working in more typical careers. This paper seeks to examine the ways artists build and maintain artistic identities, and the various actions or modes of thinking needed in order to do so. The author reflects on her own life as an artist, which includes considering how she lost sight of her artistic self, and the steps she is taking to rebuild her identity as a practicing artist. Reflection, research, and self-confrontation all guide her in acknowledging struggles and taking action for future success. subject codes.ART
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Ashok Panikkar
The Writing of a Novel
1997, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
subject codes .WRL

Malcolm Patterson
1985
Directed by
subject codes

Melaine Patterson (Hall)
Critical and Creative Thinking in the Newsroom: A High School Curriculum Reinforcing Reading and Writing in a Non-Traditional Learning Environment
1990, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Emerging from diversified educational and employment experiences in the mid-80's, the writer became sensitized to the problems of functional literacy. Being able to communicate clearly constitutes and individual's expressing oneself in the most precise manner possible. Without this, many interactions are regarded as trivial because, more often than not, they are misinterpreted or misunderstood.
The writer had the opportunity in l984 to introduce basic reading and writing concepts to a group of urban youths in the Boston Youth Programs during a seven week summer workshop. The success of that workshop led to a communication. internship that nurtured the ideas for a curriculum to help combat illiteracy. This curriculum expresses the importance of the teaching process and the development of critical and creative thinking skills. In this thesis the writer proposes that students do not learn if they are not creatively stimulated and that students do learn from effective teachers. This curriculum is an attempt to provide the environment and the stimulation to help students read and write to their fullest potential.
General thinking activities and daily lesson plans have been designed to challenge individual students to think more realistically about their everyday existence, while reinforcing their basic reading and writing skills. The learning process takes place in a simulated newsroom.
Critical and creative thinking offers an avenue (not previously well explored) for a curriculum strongly supporting essential reading and writing skills. Through lesson plans on generating ideas, clarifying ideas, assessing the validity of ideas, decision making, and problem solving, students will be guided to experience a new dimension to the basic tools for building a solid foundation for literacy training in their educational experiences. Learning to read and analyze a newspaper is shown to be a form of education, which can become, as Martin Luther King says, a "passport to decent economic positions."
subject codes .MSE.WRL.MED.CUL

Joyce Pearson
School/community cooperation: Action-involved learning
1986, May
Directed by Robert Swartz
Since education/learning occurs before and after formal schooling, schools have no monopoly on it. In fact, education happens as people live and change and wherever there is intelligent action. Schools can benefit from wider intelligent action and can increase young people's learning through co-operation with the changing world.
Such changing speaks to action-involved learning and encourages a concept of a dynamic, interactive world. It contrasts to the Alexandrian and Platonic/Aristotelian concepts of a static, closed universe, where ideas are unchanged and fixed and where an external (authoritarian) authority pre-determines knowledge. The latter system puts the cart before the horse, by decreeing learning through order regardless of interest. An interactive, more democratic system engages one's interests first, letting progress proceed by student initiative.
The contrast between a prior/traditional education and action-involved community education is great.
ACTION INVOLVED LEARNING
All life is education
Education requires participation
Public school should be primarily concerned with passing on the cultural community living and the improvement of the social order.
A PRIORI/TRADITIONAL LEARNING
Education is gained only in formal institutions of learning
Education is adequately gained through studying about life
School systems should be primarily concerned with the improvement of heritage
subject codes .CTY

Isabelle Ping-I Mao
Essays on Monkey: A Classic Chinese Novel
1997, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
Monkey is one of the masterpieces in the genre of the classic Chinese novel. It has been immensely popular with the general reading public of China since the sixteenth century. Abridged and translated into English in 1943 by Arthur Waley, it has made its way onto the college campuses in the United States, and has been well appreciated. There is a recent complete and unabridged translation by Anthony Yu, with the title Journey to the West.
In this thesis, I offer a series of critical essays on Monkey. The first essay locates the work in the genre. It traces its heritage in style and content to the story-telling tradition of China and contrasts Monkey to the most distinguished pieces in the genre. The next four essays focus on the individual characters of importance in the work. The sixth essay offers my interpretation of the view of Wu Ch'eng-en, its author, on what truth is and how a person may achieve his own truth. The final essay offers a reflection speculating on Wu's processes and their connection to concepts in the literature on critical and creative thinking. It ends with a metacognitive description of my own processes in writing these essays.
subject codes .WRL

Robert Poirier
A Diversity Curriculum for Gay and Lesbian Teens in Middle School
1996, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
Homosexuality is currently becoming a political issue in education. A central question is whether or not we as educators should provide information regarding sexual orientation in a classroom setting. If a school system decides to provide such information, at what grade level is it deemed appropriate?
This thesis focuses on the need for, and development of a diversity curriculum for middle school students which includes information on sexual orientation. It begins with an examination of the lack of safety and justice for homosexual students in school, and anti-gay violence as it relates to adolescents. The issue of the rights of gay and lesbian youth will be addressed from both the moral and legal perspectives. The moral perspective will present the work of moral educator Nel Noddings and her contribution of the ethic of care This ethic of care supports the legal perspective offered. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has set forth a series of recommendations, as well as a law, to protect gay and lesbian students in a public school setting. To achieve the recommended changes, individuals need significant creative and critical thinking skills and dispositions. Through the works of author Gary Davis, psychologists C.R. Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Teresa Amabile, and educator Delores Gallo, a conception of creative thinking is explored.
Creative development leads to the enhancement of open-mindedness, tolerance for ambiguity, and flexibility, which foster empathy. The critical thinking perspective examines the works of educator Barry Byer, and philosophers Robert Ennis and Richard Paul. Special attention is given to the importance of dialogue in the education of all children.
Finally, this thesis provides eight lessons to incorporate into a middle school curriculum. These lessons address the issues of identity formation, perception and stereotyping, ethical decision making, and the cultural contributions of marginalized groups in our society, with a focus on homosexuals. The purpose of the lessons is to reduce prejudice, increase tolerance and informed judgments, thereby addressing the needs of gay and lesbian teens in our society, by providing positive role models and fostering constructive dialogue.
subject codes .DIV

William Porter
A Critical and Creative Approach to enhancing Student Writing
1992, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
Teachers are always looking for ways to enhance their students' writing abilities. The approach of this thesis is to expose students directly to current theory on process writing while also discussing a piece of metafiction, a novel which acknowledges its awareness of its own status as fiction. Process writing theory is infused with a unit on Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five in order to connect theory and practice in writing. This immersion in the theory, creative practice and critical evaluation of writing is designed to expand students' awareness of their innate language-making abilities.
A Curriculum was implemented kin a l2th grade, heterogeneously grouped English class. Four types of writing were employed: 1) two essays of the student's own process were written, one before the unit and the other after the unit; 2) a freewriting journal on student reading throughout the unit was kept; 3) a daily summary of in-class activities was written; and 4) a creative reaction to the unit was developed. Three students were followed after exposure to the unit, and their writing was evaluated in order to see the impact of this immersion. Evidence of their metacognition, creative development and motivation was then observed. The results of the project were positive; the essays in particular showed a clear improvement in metacognition and motivation.
The implications beyond this curriculum are important. Students who view themselves as writers and who share the variety of roles of the writer find the freedom to discover themselves more fully. When writing is seen as a process in which all learners are involved, attitudes clearly change. The teacher who shares power within the classroom and allows students more ownership over their ideas has a better opportunity to influence student attitudes about making-meaning. The direct knowledge of writing theory proved beneficial in the practice of writing.
subject codes .WRL

Lyonel Prime
Remapping Critical Thinking Theory: A Critique of Richard Paul's Model of Critical Thinking
1998, May
Directed by Delores Gallo
This project is a critical examination of Richard Paul's theoretical conceptualization of critical thinking. In his relentless criticism of the didactic approach characterizing current academic instruction, Paul develops a model of critical thinking that he refers to as critical thinking in the strong sense. The model posits dialogue as the methodological strategy that helps overcome egocentric and socio-centric thinking and thereby facilitates the achievement of ethically rational development. By egocentric and socio-centric thinking, Paul means the thinking that is bound, respectively by one point of view and social context. The model in question is intended not only to displace didactic instruction but also to transcend the overemphasis on logic that characterizes current critical thinking theorizing.
While Paul's work points to a promising theoretical horizon, it betrays the very educational ideal that it sets out to pursue. Not only is it the exemplification of the didactic approach that it is intended to displace, but it is also carried out in a conceptual framework that reinforces the modernist view of effective thinking as the rigorous application of rational standards in the determination of the truthfulness of issues. By giving preeminence to logic and rational standards in the thinking process, Paul's view legitimizes a style of inquiry that is conducive to definitive closure. It is fundamentally reductionist: it tends to privilege exclusion over integration, object over relationship.
This paper presents an alternative view of critical thinking the theoretical underpinning of which includes a conception of knowledge as immanent. Its primary concern is the achievement of understanding or the production of meaning through persistent explorations of relational structures as opposed to discrete objects. It therefore dismisses any quest for a secure foundation of knowing as illusory.
This work is presenting as its starting point the conventional model of educational practice. It provides a brief description of the didactic approach against which Paul levels his criticism. Then, it moves to offer Paul's actual criticism, his view of critical thinking and a critique of his model. Finally, the paper presents a reconfiguration of the theoretical landscape of critical thinking. It formulates and justifies a non-objectivist conception of critical thinking.
subject codes .THR

Victoria Prizzia
Productive Aging and the Creative Flow
1998, May
Directed by Delores Gallo
This two-part synthesis originally designed consists of an article on aging and a reflective essay on my creative process. Directed to the popular press, contesting prevalent age-related stereotypes, this original project is based on extensive research including 25 in-depth interviews with individuals 62-95 years of age. Through the reflective essay, I trace the evolution of my work from conception to its conclusion. I identify significant ideas, feelings, events, and patterns from my journal entries and offer a conceptual understanding of my work by relating it to two psychological constructs of creativity. The first is the evolving systems approach, offered by Gruber and Wallace, Yale personality theorists who used the case method in their study Creative People at Work; the second developed by Teresa Amabile, a social psychologist currently at Harvard University, is a componential model of creativity useful in its identification of both domain-relevant and creativity-relevant skills to the process of originality, fulfilled through task motivation.
subject codes .LRN.THR.DIV

Matthew Puma
Pomp In Circumstances: Paradox, Oppositions, Metaphors and Philosophy in The Context of Adult Basic Education
2004, December
Directed by Nina Greenwald
The ability to think fluidly with a variety of oppositional forms is essential to both critical and creative thinking. Loaded oppositions such as science vs. humanities, reason vs. emotion, male vs. female and good vs. evil become hindrances to thought when they are held too rigidly as dichotomies. Learning to work with the rich flow of oppositions involves patient exploration and an openness to the emergence of paradoxical truths rooted in the opposition. However, paradoxical thinking is not the only method for flexing fixed oppositions; there are many other types of "moves" that one can make when thinking creatively with oppositional forms. The theoretical goal of this project is to develop a rich framework for supporting creative oppositional thinking.
The practical goal of this project is to channel the energy derived from the development of the theoretical framework toward enhancing the educational process resulting in applications ready to deploy in the real world. Thus, the project seeks to integrate methods for paradoxical and oppositional thinking, rich metaphors for personal development and themes from academic philosophy into the context of adult basic education. The focal outcomes of the project are a set of educational practices and a guide to help teachers employ these practices in their work.
subject codes .TCE

Beverly Quilty-Dunn
In Defense of Tall Poppies: A Middle School Approach to Higher Order Thinking
1996, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
There is a quiet crisis in gifted education today as a result of both conflicting social values and the failure of our schools to exert leadership on behalf of its most intellectually talented students.
This paper presents an analysis of this quiet crisis as a political issue, one which derives from social conflicts deeply rooted in our American Culture. Following that it describes one town's attempt to overcome the crisis by giving its students curricula based on critical and creative thinking skills, also often referred to in literature as higher order thinking skills. The paper includes an overview of contemporary theory and research on using higher order thinking skills and a multiple intelligences approach to curriculum differentiation, as well as a description of and rationale for the proposed educational intervention.
An organization framework is included in the form of a sequential action plan which is designed to work within the structure of the existing middle school while providing continuity of service to identified students It includes teaching strategies, assessment techniques and summaries of nine Curriculum units, as well as samples of student responses and possible resources from the pilot program 'mm-unit.
Following a review of current literature on the need for differentiation, various approaches to differentiation are presented, including an emphasis on higher order critical and creative thinking skills and various methods appropriate for middle schools use.
The sequential and simultaneous approach of this authentic and on going intervention is a key feature of this paper. A case study approach of my efforts to affect change for this special needs population at both the state and local levels is included, along with suggested mini-units which infuse various appropriate higher order thinking skills and appeal to multiple intelligences. A set of recommended teaching strategies with specific samples from "Philosophy Alive," a pilot curriculum unit designed to provide a genuine challenge for high-ability students, is also included.
This paper concludes by presenting a summary of the current progress and future direction of the field of gifted education in the State of Massachusetts today.
subject codes .MSE

John Quirk
Meaning Through Metaphor: Visual Dialogue And The Picturing Of Abstraction
2008, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
This synthesis builds on the connections between language and cognition, and the parallel sub-domains of linguistic metaphor and visual knowledge representation, to argue that traditional dialogue processes might aptly be employed to help collaborative learners examine complex abstractions. The starting premise, that habitual language-embedded metaphor may be used as a window into the understanding of abstractions, such as tolerance, education, justice, and integrity derives from the important work of Lakoff and Johnson in developing their Embodiment Theory of Metaphor. Further parallels for what is thought of in cognition as the spread of activation are considered in tandem with theories about the spread of connection-making in creative thinking. A look at the works of Isaacs and Bohm, both pioneers in theories of dialogue process, leads directly to the proposal that dialogue, with slight modification, could provide an effective atmosphere for capitalizing on the linguistic metaphor-visual knowledge relationship. Pulling together all of these connections, the paper proposes the principles of what the author calls visual dialogue. Visual dialogue is a collaborative framework within which learning participants might focus on the details of the metaphoric thinking embedded in their language, "seeing," as a result the abstract knowledge represented by their mental imagery. Within the atmosphere of a visual dialogue, it is argued, deeper and more subtle understandings of abstractions may be revealed collaboratively, or perhaps even re-constituted into new meanings. Understanding or meaning built in this way may then be used to approach more practical problems systematically, though such systems are not described in this paper. The paper concludes by considering a number of issues raised by the notion of thinking about, or visualizing, complex social abstractions via the process of visual dialogue. Among these are: the philosophic implications of examining implicit ambiguity metaphorically; the practical use of dialogue processes that are often thought of as open-ended; the application of visual dialogue to different age groups; the potential for the use of other media (music, sculpture, etc.) in examining abstraction; and thoughts on the use of creativity in visual dialogue for promoting potential problem solving strategies or approaches..
subject codes.LAN.THR
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Laura Rancatore
A Commitment For Change
2003, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
I matriculated in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program as a Catholic school teacher looking to satisfy state Department of Education requirements of an M.A. for teachers with additional hopes of securing a better paying job in a public school. An underlying tension also nagging at my career thoughts was that I wasn't really certain I wanted to teach for the rest of my life, and the CCT Program seemed to offer an open window for seeking alternative opportunities if I so desired. The academic structure I pursued resulted in a much more personal focus creating a necessary foundation on which to build any solid future endeavors whether personal or professional.
This paper is a workshop representing a series of writing and thinking activities that help the participant(s) identify and discover enlightening information about themselves. These new insights can be reflected upon over and over as useful reminders to pay attention to what makes us view and participate in life with a healthy perspective. Beginning with uncovering one's hidden diversity (Drumm) by exploring transformative moments, possessions (UMass Writing Program), and things that shape us, a participant can discover a common thread in important life experiences that reveals strong characteristics within themselves. Additionally, by using Elynne Austin Sharpe's Write b y Color process, one can further discover the many diverse traits we have within us that require constant nurturing and attention. Appreciative Inquiry (Hammond) is a third means by which we can strengthen our purpose by learning to value our current purpose and life situation. Finally, I adapted these writing and thinking tools to a workshop format with the intention of inspiring single mothers to strive for a positive living experience and avoid some of the pitfalls I have encountered and discovered as avoidable by going through this process.
subject codes .FRP

Jane Rando
Addressing gender equity through artistic process
1999, June
Directed by ?
On our society, girls and women face unique physical and psychic dangers. There is insufficient support for respectful surfacing and articulation of voice, neither are there sufficient tools with which to combat the socio-environmental phenomena of "hitting the wall" and "going underground." (Gilligan 1983). While the creative process is full of risk taking and challenge for all, it presents additional problems for girls and women.
This thesis identifies and explores the ideas and factors that influence female voicing, with a focus on artistic process as a voicing too. The reader is offered a selective review of the literature on gender equity issues in education and literature on critical and creative thinking in the theatre arts. Drawn upon are the works of Elizabeth DeBold, Peg Orenstein, Mary Pipher, Judith Logan, Richard Paul, Dr. Delores Gallo, Karen Warren, Suzanne Langer, Uta Hagen, and Viola Spolin among others.
Also presented is an original performance piece, "Rosa Mystica." Following the performance piece is an analysis of its evolution in relation to described conceptual models, including a scene which models the performance of a writing/theatre studio group. The central focus of the piece is on the mother/daughter relationship. The text of the play offers perspective on issues of gender equity in relation to creative performance.
The paper concludes with a brief look at Irondale, an effective, existing arts in education program based on values I share. And finally, I offer a model of the essential frame of the writing/theatre studios, an integrated arts in education program for fostering artistic process, which offers a forum for developing critical and creative thinking skills, writing skills, a sense of best performance and a sense of vitality and community for all participants.
subject codes.ART.GEN

Charly Rauscher
Next Steps in the Journey Toward Self-Fulfillment
2005, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
This work addresses the need for organizational change in the workplace. Too often businesses and companies ignore the advantages of critical and creative thinking. This project first explores some of my thinking patterns relative to designing a synthesis project. What are my interests and what effect do these have in determining a direction for this synthesis paper? Next, I discuss the concepts and ideas surrounding critical and creative thinking from both an individual and organization point of view. Theories and ideas are presented from key critical and creative thinking researchers. My introspection of what I deem to be important aspects of critical and creative thinking are also provided.
To help promote understanding of critical and creative thinking, I developed four workshops. Each of these workshops demonstrates specific key elements of both critical and creative thinking along with common pitfalls that occur in our thinking processes. For example, the first workshop pertains to critical thinking concepts and principles and the pitfalls of point of view and frame of reference. In this particular workshop individuals are given an exercise to complete. Then small groups are formed to share their individual results followed by an interactive discussion on critical thinking characteristics. Next, working with the group we try to identify the key elements of critical thinking. After this discussion I present a table that represents these elements of critical thinking. Next, the group and I explore obstacles that get in our way, that prevent us from being good critical thinkers. Then the group and I look at ways to help nurture the critical thinking process. As this particular workshop unfolds and critical thinking principles develop, there is time devoted to emphasizing the progression from individual thinking to team thinking. This progression demonstrates that individuals have different points of view and frames of reference. We approach analysis and evaluation from different perspectives. Mastering critical thinking takes time, awareness, and discipline. The remaining three workshops follow a similar format of using an exercise to help explain CCT principles and of directly involving individuals interactively in order to promote self-discovery.
The conclusion of this synthesis provides a look at other considerations a practitioner may need to address relative to conducting workshops. Lastly, my personal thoughts about the CCT program are discussed along with my next steps in the journey.
subject codes.COR

Jean Rene
Rationale and Provisional Lesson Plans For Learning High School Science Through Discovering Dialectically and Creatively
2007, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
A host of studies on students' understanding of science has revealed that persistent topic-specific misconceptions loom over wide groups of learners. However, in the literature, scant consideration is given to high school students' over-arching misconceptions. Those are erroneous conceptions about the nature of science that tend to be resistant even after traditional instruction. Those large-scale misconceptions lay at the frontier of philosophical standpoints and are likely to inhibit students' ability to construct conceptions aligned with accepted scientific views. This synthesis contends that educators can better address high school students' large scale misconceptions at the conjunction of interconnected scientific notions and philosophical praxis anchored in Socrates' dialectics and dialectical materialism. From Socrates' approach, I borrow and apply adaptively the critical probing and pondering tool that I termed strategic questioning and reflexive thinking. Those categories inform the design of open-ended questions aiming at eliciting learners' reasoning on natural phenomena. From dialectical materialism, I inherit a philosophy of continually developing and interacting processes punctuated by sudden leaps in nature. This dialectical outlook calls for the exploration of interconnections between contradictory elements of any systems, as one inquires about its wholeness, including its orderly structural patterns and its unforeseen disorderly chaotic behavior. Both dialectical approaches coalesce with pertinent theories of creativity to form an alternative pedagogical framework that I coin "Learning high school science through discovering dialectically and creatively, (L=D2C)". The pedagogical model aims at helping high school learners discover scientific notions through authentic experiments undertaken on the basis of critical and creative thinking, and to challenge students' overarching misconceptions through strategic questioning in the context of epistemological discussions. A methodology and a set of lesson plans integrating physics, biology and chemistry are elaborated to assess the L=D2C effectiveness in the context of a high school science class and to further help in its eventual refinement.
subject codes.SCI
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Andres Reyes
Incorporating Service-Learning Into The Esl Curriculum: What Aspiring Practitioners Need to Know
2009, May
Directed by Arthur Millman
As an ESL teacher at a community college, my constant goal is to synergize teaching approaches and strategies so that in addition to maximizing students' language learning, their critical thinking skills, cultural competence, and reflectivity - as members of an increasingly growing multicultural society - are heightened. Most recently, I have been pursuing service-learning as a philosophy, pedagogy, and practice that can help students connect their classroom learning to concrete, exciting, and challenging learning situations beyond the classroom.
This paper is an attempt to highlight service-learning as a powerful tool that can make a difference in students' lives as they take on important challenges and issues in their communities. Service-learning's power as a philosophy, pedagogy, and practice is examined, and its connections to current education trends, practices, and concepts are considered. Finally, practical ways of utilizing service-learning are presented, with the hope of inspiring other teachers (ESL or otherwise) to "test drive" service-learning with their students and communities.
subject codes.TCE

Barbara Reynolds
Dear Bob: Letters to a first year math teacher
1997, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
For the past ten years, I have been a mathematics teacher in urban alternative education high school programs. I chose to teach in alternative settings because they tend to attract what I call the "forgotten" students. These are the high school students who are low skilled and often viewed by teachers as discipline problems. Frequently, either they are pushed through the system to get rid of them, or they end up dropping out to rid themselves of the system (Lefkowitz, 1987). For some students, alternative programs may be their last resort to receiving an education.
Over the years, it has become apparent to me that a key ingredient to successful learning for these students (actually, for all students) is their teacher's will to learn. When I first started teaching, I viewed the classroom environment. Slowly, I began to realize that while it is important for the students to learn as much as they can from me, it is absolutely crucial for me to learn as much as I can from them; to be a good teacher I need to be a good learner (Meier, 1995).
A common tenet held my many educators is that teachers need to be passionate about learning. Passionate teachers have deep interests in some contextual aspects of learning; they are constantly making connections; they are forever noting what is around them to enrich the learning process (Perrone, 1991; Meier 1995). In general, they communicate a devotion to learning that is exceptional (Fried, 1995). This project is a narrative about my passion, about the insights, discoveries, and strategies that have resulted.
subject codes .MSE.SCI

Lorna Riach
Stumbling into Change and Overcoming My Creative Fears in The Process: My CCT Experience Identifying and Overcoming Uncertainty and Fear in My Creativity
2012, May
Directed by Jeremy Szteiter
Though I originally enrolled in CCT as a means to prevent me from working too much, I ended up discovering I actually needed to do much more work –toward my creative development, instead of my professional development. While my "head-on" approach had proven effective and successful in my professional development when faced with challenges, it turned out that the same approach would be ineffective toward my attempts at personal change. Fears quickly emerged in my creativity that required my consideration - before I could enjoy any level of success. This synthesis considers the development and manifestation of my fears in creativity, and shares my experience, actions, and reflection in overcoming these fears in my personal creativity. Through the trial of seven actions focused on overcoming fear, I share how my thinking changed – which resulted in me finding comfort in creativity, and not discomfort with uncertainty. subject codes.WRL.RPN
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Susan Ripley-Young
A Teachers Guide to Improving Students Creative Thinking in Mathematics
1995, May
Directed by Judith Collison
As a teacher, one's approach to mathematics instruction greatly influences students' learning. To help children develop positive "mathematical self-esteem", become competent in mathematics, and deal with the importance of mathematics in today's world, I propose infusing more creativity into the teaching and learning of the subject.
The key factor in this approach is self-actualization, or achieving one's potential. It is the fundamental part of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers' theories, and makes creativity accessible to everyone. Just as all people have the potential to be creative, everybody has the ability to succeed in mathematics. Neither is restricted to a selected group of particularly talented people. Through self-actualization, anyone can enhance her creativity, and by increasing one's creativity, a person can improve her "mathematical self-esteem".
Educators need to take a creative approach to their mathematics teaching, making use of all their abilities, taking risks, experimenting, and trying new things. Mathematics must be presented as a multi-faceted subject with components and applications for everyone. Teachers need to foster students' discovery of their own mathematical abilities in the context of a safe classroom atmosphere that encouraged risk taking. Pupils should be taught mathematics through their different intelligences to help them realize the various ways of knowing and understanding the subject. Using such instructional methods can assist all students in finding success in mathematics.
The examples in this curriculum development project illustrate such an approach for teachers and include a unit in division, an integrated activity based on a children's story, and an annotated list of children's books containing mathematical concepts. Teachers and students who make use of their creative abilities in mathematics may also see benefits in other areas. Once pupils develop their creative thinking in mathematics and become more confident, they should be encouraged to transfer those skills and attitudes to other contexts. Similarly, teachers should apply the creative methods used in mathematics instruction to the other subjects they teach. Thus, the positive results of such an approach extend beyond the mathematical classroom for both teacher and student.
subject codes .SCI

Maureen Roach
Some Implications of Educational Cognitive Style as it Relates to Critical Thinking Skills
1980, May
Directed by Steven Schwartz
The literature relevant to cognitive styles contains many psychological theories specifically dealing with how humans encode knowledge. Because this study was designed to relate cognition to critical thinking skills in young children, only a few psychological theories will be discussed at length. The work of Witkin in "Field Dependence" (1949) and Harvey in "Cognitive Complexity" (1961) are most closely associated with and contained information on critical thinking skills in young children.
Interest in cognitive psychology and cognitive style, and its possible application to education has recently intensified. Many studies emphasize the structure rather than the content of thought and refer to the way in which individuals conceptually organize their environments.
subject codes .LRN

Jane Robbins
Restructuring MBA Programs for Leadership Development: Critical and Creative Thinking as a Strategic Framework
1992, December
Directed by John R. Murray
Recent studies commissioned by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business and the Graduate Management Admission Council report a disturbing lack of fit between the managerial needs of today's corporate environment and the skills and perspectives of Master in Business Administration (MBA) degree recipients. Both reports articulate objectives for future MBA graduates and call for evaluation of MBA programs, particularly of faculty and curriculums.
A comparison of the objectives for MBA graduates with a broad survey of leadership skill and attributes. A further comparison of leadership research and the desired MBA profile with taxonomies of critical and creative thinking skills and attributes suggests l) that effective leaders are critical and creative thinkers, and 2) that the field of Critical and Creative Thinking therefore offers an unusually appropriate framework for restructuring MBA programs. A working definition of critical and creative thinking is provided, and a model reflects the relationship between GMAC goals, leadership, and critical and creative thinking, and frames the concept of leadership, and critical and creative thinking, and frames the concept, of leadership, in developmental terms.
Theoretical support for the argument the Critical and Creative Thinking offers a potentially valuable pedagogical framework for leadership development is drawn from the field of moral education, with emphasis on moral atmosphere, just communities, and multiple perspective taking: and from the field of cognitive psychology, with emphasis on conceptual change and the role of hierarchical knowledge structures and concept mapping in unstructured problem solving. These lines of support are responsive to the finding that leaders are characterized by high levels of moral and cognitive development, which interact to foster personal and interpersonal skills and habits of mind.
Implications and suggestions are provided for reform of the MBA curriculum; teaching methods and materials (including the case method): student recruitment; and faculty development and qualifications (including implications for PhD programs, staff structure, and tenure policy). Possibilities for future research, and a proposal for a Certificate of Advanced Study in Managerial Leadership, are briefly discussed.
subject codes .COR

Jennifer Robicheau
Training Leaders in Higher Education: A Design for a Professional Development Workshop in the Area of Student Affairs
1999, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
It appears as though a change has occurred in terms of the way society views leadership. The qualities and skill-sets once thought to be integral to the practice, and the responsibilities assigned to those occupying such positions, have both experienced a transformation over time. These changes, in combination with the fact that many of the individuals working in higher education are not adequately prepared for the leadership roles they hold, provide evidence that new leadership theories/models need to be established in response.
In this paper, I first seek support for my claims by way of a literature review. I draw from theorists and researchers from many different professional disciplines, such as; educational, psychological, corporate, political and militaristic. Upon obtaining their endorsement of my initial assertions, I proceed to devise my own skill-set model for what now has been deemed essential to successful leading in higher education This model then serves as a preface to my leadership training workshop design.
The workshop rationale stems from the selected writings of Peter Senge Director of "The Learning organization Center" at The Sloan school of Management (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Ken Blanchard, international consultant on leadership, customer service and employee empowerment, and Robert Cooper, executive consultant to 3M and Arthur Andersen. All three of these individuals are considered to be experts on "leading" and frequently conduct seminars on the topic.
Both because my own professional interests lie within this arena. and for the purpose of supplying specificity to thc process. the workshop itself is then applied to d case study example from the department of Student Affairs (SA). The three-day seminar is outlined in detail. It consists of both short motivational speeches and lengthier group activities and discussions.
In concluding the project, suggestions for further study on the topic are offered.
subject codes .TCE

Jo-Anne Rogers
Student's Mathematical Thinking and Curriculum Change
1997, December
Directed by ?
The Practitioner's Narrative: Student's Mathematical Thinking and Curriculum Change traces my work with students over a two year period. This work articulates not only the students' change in disposition toward mathematics but my own transformation in thinking about curriculum development and the role of the teacher.
This work had altered my understanding of curriculum development. I used to view curriculum development as a linear process. I now see it as a more complex, spiral, "messy" undertaking. This work documents student growth anecdotally, offering supportive evidence from student pre and post self assessment surveys, and with the subtest data provided in the MEAP Tests, 1996.
The practitioner's narrative includes a final reflective conversation about a shift in my perception of the classroom teacher from the consumer of research generated outside the classroom to the teacher in a new role: teacher-as-researcher within and beyond the classroom. In this conversation, the growth of students' mathematical thinking over time was discussed and evidence to support the growth was presented from the process folio.
subject codes.SCI

Bridget Rosatone
Creative Conflict Resolution: Teaching Children Critical and Creative Thinking Skills and Dispositions
1998, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
It is amazing how quickly a simple misunderstanding or disagreement can turn in to an unresolvable fight. American high schools are often plagued by violence and are searching for a means to curb incidents. I believe it is important to start with the youngest of students. Elementary students should be provided with the skills necessary to creatively problem solve, through negotiation, solutions which are non-violent. These "skills" can then assist them in any conflictual situation, which they face in the future.
The aim of this original curriculum is to teach forth and fifth grade students the skills necessary to think critically and creatively when dealing with a conflictual situation. These skills will allow the students to negotiate fair solutions that are unique and satisfying to everyone involved. The focus of this unit is the cultivation of conflict resolution skills through the development of the underlying skills of critical and creative thinking and problem solving. The lessons facilitate the development of the needed attitudes and dispositions of open-mindedness, flexibility, tolerance for ambiguity and empathy, along with the specific skills of active listening, problem sensitivity, predicting consequences and evaluation of options.
subject codes .MOR

Rossen Roussev
Cognitive Problems, Metacognition, and Philosophy of Language
1997, December
Directed by Arthur Millman
In this paper I argue that many of the cognitive problems (such as "low self-esteem," "permanent anxiety," "bad learning strategies," "student-teacher conflict of values," or "motivational deficit") that interfere with problem solving are rooted in individuals' philosophically naive views of how their own intelligence works and can be overcome through development of an adequate philosophical competence. Accordingly, I attempt a delineation of the scientific prescription for overcoming these problems, metacognition, in terms of concepts of contemporary' philosophy' of language.
Four scientific concepts were examined, including M. V. Covington's concept of strategic thinking, J. Lochhead's concept of the role of verbalization in thinking, R. Paul's concept of conceptualization and elements of thought, and M. Lipman's concept of the role of philosophy, in children's early cognitive development, which all consider overcoming of cognitive problems. Four philosophical concepts were examined, including L. Wittgenstein's early concept of the correct use of language, his later concept of language games, J. Searle's concept of speech acts, and R. Rorty's concept of the speech acts, and R. Rorty's concept of the political answer to philosophical questions. which all consider overcoming of traditional philosophical problems. In the scientific views, cognitive problems are explained by individuals' inadequate personal epistemology and overcome through the mind's activity, metacognition, which involves knowledge of how one's intelligence works, or a concept of cognition and a utilization of this knowledge in any new problematic situation. Similarly, in the philosophical views, philosophical problems are generally explained by "misuse of the logic of language" and overcome by mediation of what I called the philosophical methodology of dissolution, which I interpreted as involving both an appropriate concept of cognition and a permanent utilization of this concept. Thus, the delineation of the concept of metacognition in philosophical terms becomes possible, given that cognitive problems qualify better for the competence of philosophy than for the expertise of science. By means of J. Habermas' concept of "philosophy as a mediating interpreter" I conceptualized both philosophical and cognitive problems as problems of mediation which come into being in the exchange of expertise on two presupposed levels of discourse and activity, respectively, expert culture and everyday communication.
Since the problems of mediation are conceived of as remaining out of the scope of the expert fields but in the scope of philosophy as an non-expert field, the latter was used to provide with its competence the problem solving practices which deal with such problems on the level of everyday communication. Then, I illustrate an overcoming of cognitive problems by mediation of the philosophical methodology of dissolution which I examine and represent in the form of the scientific concept of metacognition as a sequence of explanation and application of a philosophical concept of cognition which in this case is a compositional philosophical concept of language.
subject codes .LAN

Jane Rowe
Provincetown Framework for Infused Thinking
1998, June
Directed by
The purpose of this thesis is to propose an organized framework of critical and creative thinking skills and strategies within a problem-solving format to facilitate the infusion of instruction of such skills and strategies within the regular academic curriculum.
This curriculum development proposal is the product if my deeply held conviction that there had to be "a better way to teach social studies" than the traditional method of presenting a broad but shallow overview of a topic from a single point of view and then testing for recall. During this quest, I was formally introduced to critical and creative thinking through coursework, and here found the key to making social studies instruction interesting and relevant to students. I therefore redefined the problem to encompass the issues related to organizing critical and creative thinking skills, strategies, and processes into a manageable curriculum.
In this thesis, I will establish a need for such an organizing framework, and I will demonstrate that the approach proposed here has merit to accomplish the task at hand. While such a framework has generic applications, the discussion here will focus on its use in a unique social studies curriculum which was developed around this framework and which has been successfully implemented at the...
subject codes .ELE

Michael Eve Rozas
The Impact of Creative Thinking Skills on Classroom Behavior
1980, May
Directed by
The creative thinker has most recently been the topic of many books and studies by educators and psychologists worldwide. A vast literature exists attempting to define and describe creativity. Although numerous definitions exist, Guilford's conception of creativity has wide acceptance. According to his model, "To be creative . . . means to think in divergent modes, to come up with numerous novel or unique meanings, new or original thoughts, to depart or diverge from usual or conventional ideas".
It is this conception of the process that forms the theoretical framework for this study. To use creativity in real-life problem-solving situations, however, also requires well-developed skills of analysis, inference and judgment. These may be viewed as the final phase of the creative process, the phase of elaborating a plan, or they may be viewed as discreet critical thinking processes. For this study, those skills are seen as the final phase of the creative process, and they are therefore, also a focus of this study. Since most of the literature on the skills of analysis, inference and judgment...
subject codes .TCE

Joel Rubin
Critical and Creative Thinking in School Age Child Care Projects and Play
1988, May
Directed by John Murray
subject codes .CTY

Robert Rubovits
A Critical and Creative Thinking Bible Curriculum
1997, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
It is really not surprising that studying the Hebrew Bible can engender critical and creative thinking. For centuries, Jews have considered the text to be divine in origin, having meaning and importance not just for Jews 3,000 years ago, but for each subsequent generation. What may be clear, however, in one era may be obscure to those in another. Each generation pored over the text, bringing all their critical reasoning powers onto it, analyzing each word, measuring each phrase, coaxing from the text insight into the issues in their lives. However, like a miffed lover who is not placated solely by reasoned arguments, the Hebrew Bible does not yield all of its secrets to critical inquiry. Much of its wealth can only be derived through creative thinking, and centuries of rabbinic minds have utilized these abilities to search its depths. To a great degree, these have become what we recognize today as midrashim; the process (and product) of delving into the text to gain a deeper understanding.
Critical and creative thinking have always been used to clarify and derive meaning from the Hebrew Bible. Jewish education, however, has often overlooked the explicit instruction of these thinking skills. The Jewish day school, which is already teaching a dual curriculum of Jewish and general subjects is hard pressed to find the time to add hours even something as important as thinking skills. What I have done in this thesis is demonstrate that Bible creative thinking literature and then I examine two methods of teaching these abilities and dispositions. This is followed by a curriculum unit and sample lessons which have the students learn the Hebrew Bible using the same skills that rabbis and other Jews have used for millennia. In this way, I hope the students will learn a deep understanding of and appreciation for their heritage, and through it the habits of mind so essential to possess in today's ever-changing world.
subject codes .MOR.CUL

Michael Ruf
New representations of Afro-Americans in films: an analysis of 'Do the right thing' and 'Eve's Bayou' following the framework of Stuart Hall
2002, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
Motion pictures are a crucial source for what each of us know about various cultures. But a culture is not always represented accurately. The history of film is full of distorted and depreciative images of minorities. In my paper, I concentrate on the depiction of African-Americans in U.S. cinema. As many authors have shown, such representations of Blacks have been contemptuous since the early ages of motion pictures. A so-called 'new black cinema' of the 1980s and 1990s was welcomed as finally breaking with these patterns of representation. In this paper, I analyze two films of the new black cinema in order to see if they really depict the African-American situation in a significantly new and different way. These two films are "Do the Right Thing" by Spike Lee (1989) and "Eve's Bayou" by Kasi Lemmons (1997). These movies were selected because they represent two different categories of African-American cinema: the first is a 'black militant film' and the second is a 'black film of experience.' For the purpose of my analysis, I have selected the theoretical framework 'representation' by Stuart Hall (1997).
I structured the paper in six parts. First, I explain why motion pictures strongly influence what we know about social and ethnic groups in society, how African-Americans have been represented in past decades and what their attempts at resistance have been. Second, I explain why, since the 1980s, independent black film - new black cinema - seem to be providing promising forms of representation. Further, I discuss how these movies can be classified by applying categories from black theatre. Third, I introduce the two films to be analyzed. That is, I summarize their content and give evidence why each is a member of one of the genres described previously. Fourth, I lay out in detail Hall's theoretical framework. An important question to be addressed in this section is how representation constructs 'difference.' In the fifth section, I analyze "Do the Right Thing" and "Eve's Bayou" by applying Hall's theoretical framework. Finally, I compare and contrast, summarize, and discuss the results of my analysis of both movies.
(Powerpoint summary, Full Text)
subject codes .CUL

Joseph Ruffino
Holistic Perception in Literature
1993, September
Directed by John R. Murray
This thesis considers the importance of learning how to read more holistically a novel written in a foreign language. The author draws upon research and his own teaching experience to construct the learning process which is outlined and discussed in the thesis.
The processes are categorized into three activities that are dependent upon one another. The first set of activities, the author refers to is paedonomics, the second is cultural priming; and the third, collective creativity. Each of these major activities is considered an integral part of holistic perception, defined as a means of using all the senses to respond to and experience phenomena.
Paedonomics is a term coined by the author to refer to a wide range of activities that are explored and discussed. The author uses these activities to help students get into a playful relaxed, and meaningful mode for learning. Paedonomics includes such activities as guided imagery, visualization, progressive relaxation, aromatherapy, uses of music, and mindmapping. These activities are not done in vacuo but are done in conjunction with cultural priming and collective creativity.
Cultural priming is an activity in which students are presented with brief representative creative works from the sixteenth century. Through collective dialogue, they perceive the quintessence of that historical period and through induction find similarities and differences between those times and the contemporary scene.
The collective creativity phase of the process allows the students, through collective dialogue, to create an original work based on their holistic perception of a novel and its times. In their creative efforts, the groups translate the novel's characters and setting to their own modern period. This permits them to perceive in even sharper focus their own times as well as their individual and collective commonalties and differences. This applies not only to historical people and times but also to their own contemporary society.
In this thesis, the author demonstrates how the three-part process of holistic perception is applied to exploring the sixteenth century Spanish novel, Lazarillo de Tormes. Through paedonomics and cultural priming, students experience the sixteenth century Spanish novel. Lazarillo de Tormes. Through paedonomics and cultural priming, students experience the sixteenth century. Through collective dialogue, they infer that the sixteenth century has many elements in common with the contemporary one. For this reason, it serves as a springboard for students to individually and collectively respond to and experience their own times. It also serves as a vehicle for them to perceive an historical period with more empathy and less historical stereotyping. Students begin to perceive on various levels their own role and importance in the chain of life starting in pre-historic times.
subject codes .MSE

Kristen Rushworth
Narrative Inquiry: Conversations That Reinforce My Commitment To Inquiry Based Learning
2003, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
The Critical and Creative Thinking Graduate Program has challenged me to think critically about my teaching methodology. Teaching science effectively became a focus of mine and I changed my teaching methodology to an inquiry-based model.
This change required research on the inquiry approach. During this process it was realized that putting theory into practice is often a difficult task. This led me to seek out experts on inquiry-based learning.
Listening to the experts' stories about what led them to become exponents of inquiry gave me great insight that will help me with becoming an exponent as well. The stories share what exactly brought about the change into inquiry-based learning and the refinement they had to make with their teaching methodologies. Details about their daily teaching practices provide great advice that will guide me in my future plan for refining the way that I create and manage an inquiry-based classroom.
Advice on how to engage children covers a wide range of educational practices. One expert who was interviewed, Paul Jablon, highlights the need for children to manipulate materials on a daily basis. He believes that children learn science better if they figure out theories and scientific phenomena by themselves first, then connect their findings with the greater scientific community. There also needs to be some sort of real world connection with learning science so children can see that they are being productive now, rather than having students feel like they are preparing to be productive later on in life.
Barbara Waters shares management strategies in her interview where a teacher should provide a scientific demonstration, provide students the opportunity to discuss what they have seen and come up with an essential question about the demonstration. This will allow for students to feel that they have ownership over what they explore scientifically.
The third interview explores problem-based learning and the importance of creating a classroom climate that is conducive to inquiry. Nina Greenwald lends her expertise on how to create such a climate, and how to make questions key to the learning process.
The paper wraps up with my experience with inquiry-based learning and provides a detailed account of what changes I plan to make in my classroom to make it rich in inquiry.
Teaching is a profession with enormous responsibility. Knowledge of this causes me to be a reflective practitioner. The Critical and Creative Thinking Program has inspired me to promote educational change. This paper has clarified the change that I will make in my classroom and the strategies presented in the paper will help to facilitate the change.
subject codes .SCI

Kevin Russo
Applying Critical and Creative Thinking Sports Psychology and Motivation
1996, December
Directed by John Murray
Most research has contended that athletic performance can be directly influenced by the type of psychological and motivational approach used. However, it is evident that many coaches do not truly understand the meaning of motivation or its influence on performance. Throughout this thesis, we will take an in-depth view of what sports psychology and motivation both mean, as well as factors that may influence them in a productive manner.
Applying critical and creative thinking concepts to sports psychology and motivation seems to assist in providing a better understanding not only as to what they actually are, but also as to how the integration process leads to a more positive approach to educating, evaluating and understanding athletic behavior. The end result, of course, is a heightened level of performance on the part of the individual as a result of the manifestation process.
This thesis takes a close look first at critical and creative thinking before focusing on sports psychology and motivation. As will be displayed, there does exist an overlap of concepts, strategies, and components of the two areas which further supports the benefits of applying CCT to sports psychology and motivation.
Once the two areas of study have been reviewed, the thesis will look to integrate them in such a way to encourage ongoing positive interaction and communication (oral and written) between coaches and athletes. The instrument that is developed provides an opportunity for coaches to evaluate motivation and self-confidence levels in athletes, as athletes are asked to also evaluate themselves. It allows coaches to become familiar with the true meaning of motivation, and it insures that coaches are able to recognize and address unproductive motivational behavior.
In summary, this thesis will support the need to use CCT to best understand sports psychology and motivation. The instrument provides an example of how this can be done, with the end result not only being a more positive athlete and atmosphere but also improved athletic performance.
subject codes .SPO

Evelyn Ryan
Teaching Thinking Skills in the Content Area: A workshop for Secondary School Teachers
1994, December
Directed by Judith Collison
This thesis presents a curriculum for a workshop on teaching thinking skills in the content area designed for secondary school teachers. In-service time for the workshop is twenty hours. The first fifteen hours are scheduled for one week in the summer. Two follow-up sessions, each two and a half hours in length, are scheduled during the school year.
The purpose of this curriculum is to establish a foundation for skillful thinking-purposeful thought that is aware not only of its objective but of its own processes. In order to accomplish this purpose the workshop has two goals. The first goal is to teach the method of direct instruction in teaching thinking skills developed by Barry K. Beyer. The second goal is to model active learning strategies that support skillful thinking in the secondary school classroom.
The method of direct instruction features the following procedure for teaching thinking skills in the content area:
Determine what you want your students to be able to do better.
Note places where this activity occurs in a particular course
Identify the key thinking skill involved in the activity.
Describe that thinking skill.
Plan a sequence of skill teaching lessons
Write the lessons using appropriate skill teachingstrategies
Determine your assessment strategy and write the necessary evaluation instructions.
Teach the thinking skill
Repeat this process for one or two other thinking skills that are critical to learning your subject matter. Active learning strategies that support skillful thinking include the following:
Creating a classroom atmosphere that fosters positive attitudes about thinking and its teaching.
sing several cooperative learning activities to teach the workshop's content.
Guiding instruction in metacognition.
Leading discussions using techniques that facilitate skillful thinking.
Assessing the learning in the workshop with a final project that requires the participants to synthesize and apply their knowledge.
This workshop thus provides a practical way for teachers to begin the complex but rewarding task of teaching thinking in their classrooms.
subject codes .MSE

Cynthia Sanders
Critical and Creative Thinking in Transracial Adoption
1999, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
The standard profile of the American family has undergone a dramatic change within the last few decades, with an increase in single parent households, teen parents, inter-religious and inter-ethnic relationships, and the emergence of same-sex parents. Included in this vast array of familial definitions is the multiracial family. Often these families arise through interracial marriage; however, they are steadily escalating through interracial adoptions.
Transracial adoptions, the focus of this paper, have increased for various reasons. One is that the number of children available for adoption exceeds the same-race people who are waiting to adopt. Another reason is the option to adopt infants from overseas. For whatever reason(s), transracial adoptions have been scrutinized. They not only alter the visual image of the American family, but they accentuate one of society's major blemishes: racism. As a result, opposing fronts have gathered, for or against transracial adoption.
This paper begins with an historical overview of the controversy surrounding transracial adoption. It offers an analysis of the conceptual debate and the responses of an important professional organization, the National Association of Black Social Workers. Following a selective review of relevant empirical studies, the paper explains the usefulness of critical and creative thinking techniques to develop coping strategies among family members and describes a series of workshops addressing this goal.
subject codes .DIV.CUL

Sheryl Savage
From Humor In The Workplace To Humor As A Means Of Healing From Loss
2007, December
Directed by Nina Greenwald
The role of humor in promoting a climate of creativity in organizations has been the focus of this synthesis. Developing a program to add humor to an organizationâs culture can open up and encourage peopleâs creativity. In this environment of creativity, effective problem solving can occur and thus lead to needed positive change. This paper explores lay and scholarly research findings on the role of humor in the workplace. There exists both anecdotal and empirical evidence to support the theory of humorâs ability to be a tool for creative problem solving and stress reduction, as well as humorâs positive effect in the workplace in dealing with management and leadership issues. To obtain a perspective that was not included in the research undertaken for this work, I also interviewed two very different leaders who successfully use humor every day in their organizations. This information corroborates research findings cited in this paper. However, as referenced in the prologue and then fully explained in chapter four, due to a tragedy in my life, I took a new direction for my study of humor, turning primarily to humor as a means of coping with loss. This synthesis now represents the beginning of a new direction for my life. Using skills acquired in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program I will use the power of gentle humor to develop a support group and workshops for families dealing with tragic loss in their lives. My eagerness to continue my work on this subject, especially meeting firsthand with groundbreakers and current practitioners in the field, does not preclude the desire to return to my original work on humor in the workplace at some time as well.
subject codes .COR
(Full Text)

Patricia Scannell
Looking forward looking back: A retrospective of writing
1997, December
Directed by ?
In this paper, the author traces her development as a writer from her childhood to the present, with particular emphasis on the years 1984 and 1996. She draws from the work of writing and creativity theorists including Elbow, Murray, Hampl, David, Cameron, Wallace, and Fox. Included in the text and its appendix are some of the author's personal narratives and poems which relate to the major milestones in her development. Related journal entries and early drafts of these works are also included. From her study of the creative process in general and the writing process in particular, the author concludes that, for her, writing has been and will continue to be a valuable life long activity. She has found it to be a powerful means to self knowledge and discovery. It has helped her to respond with resilience to times of pain and pleasure. It is an activity which she looks forward to continuing for the rest of her life.
subject codes.WRL

Marie Schleiff
Changing Practices in the Assessment of Writing a Discipline Redefining Itself
1996, June
Directed by John R. Murray
This thesis concerns how changes in the assessment of writing mirror the historical changes in the purposes and methodologies in education. We have witnessed a dramatic shift from the viewing and testing of writing as a series of sub-skills, with emphasis on error-avoidance and correctness of form, to viewing both the process of writing and its assessment as a means of discovery, reflection, and learning. New practices in the evaluation of writing reflect knowledge of how writing occurs and how it is taught. Results of a survey conducted over two years show high school students' responses to traditional and new assessment methods. The important role writing may play in aiding students to better understand and learn school related materials is explored. The use of portfolios in writing classes can provide students with experiences they can carry outside of the English classroom. Creating a portfolio and portfolio assessment in the writing classroom are ways to nurture creative and critical thinking. Through the use of portfolios in the writing classroom, teaching, learning, and assessing can work together as a recursive whole. Portfolios can provide the authentic experience and the authentic assessment called for by today's educational theorists, writer-researchers, and classroom teachers to prepare students for the complex world waiting for them in the twenty-first century.
subject codes .WRL

Robert Schoenberg
Using Stress Management to Promote Critical Thinking
1992, May
Directed by
This paper examines the effects of distress upon critical thinking and offers a variety of stress management techniques to enhance critical thinking skills. A major theme throughout this paper is that one cannot think clearly when one is distressed. The harmful effects of distress upon critical thinking are discussed in the context of the works of several authors in the field of stress management and cognitive psychology. Several different types of stress reduction techniques are presented and discussed.
The critical thinking skills of metacognition, frame of reference and methodological believing are reviewed with a focus on how stress management can enhance these skills. Teaching strategies incorporating these critical thinking skills, with specific examples, are offered for high school teachers. A theoretical discussion addresses the topics of stress and distress, the need for stress management, stress strategies. Following this discussion, stress management techniques and critical thinking skills are integrated.
This paper culminates with the presentation of four workshops designed to enhance critical thinking through the use of stress management. Each workshop is designed for high school teachers and consists of theory, practical applications and several hands-on activities and exercises. Although these workshops are aimed for teachers helping students to think more critically, the teachers may find that these techniques impact on their own thinking.
In conclusion, this paper demonstrates that stress management plays an integral role in promoting critical thinking and offers the reader several strategies to accomplish this goal. The theoretical discussions of both stress management and critical thinking set the stage for practical applications.
subject codes .COM.MSE

Ellen Schoenfeld-Beeks
A Case for Dialogue in Public Education: Individual and Collective Learning through the Dialogue Process
1995, September
Directed by Lynn Dhority
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the theoretical and conceptual elements of the Dial ogue process in the context of our present and pressing need for dynamic educational organization and reform. The Dialogue process provides an approach for shifting consciousness. Dialogue is thus reviewed as a vehicle for creating learning and transformation in individuals and groups by cultivating individual capacities to shift from a Newtonian-objective reality to a post-modem Systems world-view. Such a paradigm shift is relevant for understanding the underlying theory fundamental to constructivist practices, for integrating transformational thinking skills into curricula, and for creating the kind of collaborative environment and leadership necessary for cultural changes that improve teaching and learning.
Learning and practicing new ways of speaking, listening and thinking develops Thus, Dialogue provides a practicing context useful uncovering the underlying assumptions and presuppositions that serve as barriers to our individual and collective learning. Dialogue is a process by which individuals can develop a capacity to be in "learning space" an internal orientation toward learning and generative thinking as opposed to reacting mindlessly from assumed (previously learned) position of "certainty."
This thesis also explores the scientific underpinnings for Dialogue found in quantum theory and the philosophy of the Dialogue process as proposed by quantum physicist David Bohm. The current Dialogue literature is reviewed and together with the writer's own Dialogue experience provides an overview for those interested in the application of Dialogue's holistic, systemic and relational principles to educational reform.
subject codes .COM

Elin Schran (Gardiner)
Creative Skating: A Creative Approach to Figure Skating
1999, June
Directed by Steven Schwartz
Standard figure skating training methods focus on rote learning and skill practice. Little or no attention is given to the development of the skater's creative self. As a skater, coach, competitor and professional performer, it is my contention that it is this lack of attention to creativity that contributes to the high rates of burnout and stress-related disorders found in the sport. By enhancing creative development, I believe that confidence levels and levels of intrinsic motivation can be improved which should in turn lead to better, more substantial skill development and more contented skaters. In this paper, I will describe one such program, Creative Skating, that I developed to speak to these concerns.
The conceptual framework for this project is grounded in the fields of creativity, education, and psychology, including the work of Teresa Amabile (1996) who has studied extensively the effects of intrinsic motivation; Bernie Warren (1997) who has focused on the use of creativity as a therapeutic tool; and Roger Von Oech (1997) who advocates the value of play for stimulating creativity and breaking the mental set.
The Creative Skating method proposed here is intended as a supplement to standard training. This paper examines the problems of standard training methods, describes the Creative Skating method that I have designed, and presents evidence from a small pilot study of adult beginners participating in the Creative Skating workshop, as documented by a companion video tape. The participants' stress and confidence levels were tested by several instruments, including the PANAS measure (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen 1988), a visual self-portrait and a specially designed questionnaire before and after the workshop. The results offered considerable support for my hypothesis. Participants reported greatest gains in the areas of pride, trust in one's body, and confidence suggesting that by enhancing intrinsic motivation through play, adult beginners are better able to relax while skating, and begin to automate kinesthetic skills. Further study of the importance of creativity as a means of increasing intrinsic motivation levels, lowering stress levels and encouraging confidence in acquiring complex motor skills is warranted based on the positive results of this study.
subject codes .SPO

Scott Seiler
A case for implementing an electronic document managament system (EDMS)
2002, August
Directed by Peter Taylor
We live in a world where documentation and record keeping are considered not only necessary but also essential. This documentation produces and unprecedented amount of paperwork. Keeping track of this volume of paper is a task of monumental proportions. Faced with this task, I sought to sell the idea of an Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) to the senior staff of the governmental agency that employs me. Participation in the Creative Critical Thinking Program at the University of Massachusetts-Boston, has afforded me the opportunity to formulate an implementation scheme to accomplish this.
Included in my synthesis project are the documented advantages and disadvantages of using an EDMS. These findings consist of explanations of what has been done in the agency so far and how further development would help the agency in the future. EDMS can enhance the agency's ability to achieve greater value in its business practices and processes. A review of case studies provides comparative insight into possible problems that could and are encountered in implementation of an EDMS within an organization. Problems such as staff fear of the unknown and resistance to change group process along with communication breakdown. This is where CCT processes of problem solving using dialogue, group communication enhancement /involvement, and other thinking skills come into play. I identify the key components I would employ to change the existing work culture, set up training programs and enhance the aspects of team effort that will contribute to my successful implementation plan.
This synthesis has provided an opportunity for me to form a collective documented approach with accumulated knowledge and schema for a successful implementation plan. This paper concludes with my reflective perspective on lessons learned, new problems identified, hopes for future development and personal educational aspirations.
subject codes .COR.TEC

Nancy Sheehan
Helping Middle School-Age Girls Understand the Value Of Participating in Physical Education Programs Through Critical and Creative Thinking
2003, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of utilizing physical education as a vehicle for middle school-age girls to think critically and creatively about major health issues in their lives. The paper examines different health issues that can affect girls' health including, weight control (specifically, obesity and anorexia), disease prevention (specifically, coronary heart disease and osteoporosis), and mental well-being (specifically, low self-esteem and depression).
Middle school-age girls are at a transitional stage in their lives and need guidance in acquiring proper thinking tools to make well-informed decisions. Thinking strategies that can train middle school-age girls to think more thoroughly are problem-solving, decision-making and metacognition. Thinking tools such as a Problem-Solving Graph, a Decision-Making Matrix, Journaling, SCAMPER, and Why-Why Diagramming are introduced to help girls work through the various thinking strategies.
The purpose of this paper is to training girls to think critically and creatively about the implications of physical education for the mental well-being. This paper proposes a manual to guide instructors through different teaching techniques that can be significant in any middle school-age girl's learning abilities.
subject codes.GEN.SPO

Denise Sheppard
The Development of Self in Women: Healing Workshops for Survivors of Sexual Abuse
1991, September
Directed by
As a curriculum development project, this thesis focuses on the ways in which the integration of critical and creative thinking skills, particularly flexibility in thinking, problem-identification, problem-solving and awareness of frames of reference, have influenced and refined the author's counseling skills, as they pertain to women who were sexually abused as children.
Following a review and synthesis of relevant works of Warren, Sternberg, Gardner, Torrance, Gallo, and Rogers, ten healing workshops, designed to be problem-finding and problem-solving in nature, draw upon the inspiration of authors from spiritual, educational, and psychological practice, in particular Borysenko, Gruber and Wallace, Bass and Davis. 'These workshops begin with a look at each individual, through one's own eyes and then through the eyes of another. During the course of ten weeks, the participants use writing, clay, drawing, role-play (through visualization) , ritual and discussion to re-claim their bodies and spirits and to find their individual voices that were silenced through abuse and its ramifications. The workshop sessions culminate with a verbal sharing in the group of each woman' s autobiography.
All of the workshop exercises have been read, reviewed, and evaluated by women who are presently in the healing process. Based on these insights and experiences, the thesis includes suggestions for the transfer of critical and creative thinking skills to life situations and identifications for further implementation.
In a broader context, this thesis serves as an illustration of the usefulness of critical and creative thinking strategies to illuminate frames of reference that have lost their usefulness and to create new ones. It also details a problem-solving approach that allows not only for discarding that which is no longer necessary, but also for the creation of new, more empowering visions of life available for women. As Torrance says so succinctly, "Creative behavior has healing qualities- and so does solving one's problems." (E. Paul Torrance. "Sociodrama: Teaching Creative Problem Solving as a Therapeutic Technique." Chap. in Children's Needs: Psychological Perspectives, eds. Alex Thomas and Jeff Grimes. Washington, D.C.: National Association of school Psychologists, 1987, p.591)
subject codes .GEN.CTY

Justin Sherman
Developing Generative Leadership through Emergent Learning
1996, December
Directed by John Murray
This thesis is the current synthesis of a deep exploration of the foundations of collaborative, transformational learning within organizations. I begin with a basic assumption which informs all the thinking that unfolds throughout this thesis: the sustainability of our organizations, and quite possibly the survival of our species, is dependent not on the leadership and the development of a chosen few, but on our collective ability to deeply listen for and sense what most needs to happen within a given group of people and then to act on this.
We live our lives with deeply entrenched, mostly tacit beliefs about deferring to "experts" and the need for strong, charismatic leaders. These tacit beliefs have largely disempowered and disconnected us from accessing our most fully creative, generative selves.
The deepest reservoirs of learning are found in collaborative, "emergent" learning experiences. In essence, the question becomes: what can happen when groups of people gather together as teachers and learners to share their thinking, their imaginings, their hopes and fears? What new thinking can be born? And how might this impact our sense of leadership and collective action?
There are many forms which emergent learning can take. Contemporary structures for emergent learning have many of their roots in the group sensitivity training movement of the 1960s and '70s. Present structures for emergent learning include: the dialogue process, Community Building, Open Space Technology and various hybrid forms of both verbal
and non-verbal collaborative, co-creative processes. The essence of 'emergent" learning is an experiential immersion in many of the foundational skills of critical and creative thinking: systems thinking, metacognition, inquiry, empathic and reflective listening, and seeing from multiple perspectives.
While emergent learning structures can have many purposes, I believe the greatest value of these learning experiences is developing the capacity for what I refer to as "generative" leadership. Generative leadership is about developing what I call advanced group sensitivities -- listening for what is wanting and needing to happen within the collective and then having the courage to act on this. It is about engendering a new quality of leadership within organizations-- unfolding, shared leadership as an alternative to traditional, hierarchical control, and authority.
subject codes .COR

Jennifer Simmons
Thinking about Grammar in the Middle School: A Study and Recommendations
1992, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
The study involved 53 sixth graders in a small, rural town in southeastern Massachusetts. Its purpose was to identify some of the grammatical concepts held by these students. The survey is presented. Briefly, these students lack understanding of basic grammatical concepts (such as the subject/verb relationship and subject versus object). These and other misconceptions indicate that students do not understand the role of word function in language. A central finding about students' attitudes toward grammar study is that students do not realize that they have intuitive knowledge of their native language. Although students are not sure what grammar is, most of them believe that grammar should be studies in the middle school.
This thesis suggest that teachers strive to identify students' misconceptions about language and devise ways to bring about changes in understanding. New learning ideally should be interactive as opposed to additive. A learner must relate a new idea to what is already known. A series of five lessons on language structure and a series of four lessons on contemporary usage are recommended. All lessons reflect a critical and creative thinking approach to learning.
In this thesis, grammar is defined as meaning sentence structure but including usage. Grammar has always been a traditional part of the English language arts curriculum despite the fact that the study of grammar in isolation has been rejected by the National Council of Teachers of English. This thesis agrees with that view. The current literature on the teaching of grammar is reviewed. Grammar studies generally recommend integrating grammar into writing and reading, a whole language approach.
Literature on early adolescent learner readiness is also reviewed. Three main issues are identified as being crucial to the well-being of early adolescents and their success in school: social- emotional development, biological development (i.e. brain growth), and cognitive development.
subject codes .MSE.LAN

Sharon Sloman
Train The Trainer Workshops: Enhancing Listening And Social Skills to Improve Employment Opportunities For Individuals With Disabilities
2002, August
Directed by Dr. Nina Greenwald
People with disabilities need employment skills to enhance their employment opportunities. As the economy improves and the baby boomers age and retire, a shortage of qualified talent will diminish and the need for new talent will increase. The lack of interpersonal skills has been determined to be a major factor in job loss for people with disabilities.
It is demonstrated that people with disabilities are judged harshly in their efforts to be considered for employment. Employers are fearful of costs associated with making accommodations for disabilities, doubt that they can find qualified candidates who are disabled, or maintain long held myths and attitudes about people with disabilities as unqualified, not trainable and unproductive.
Studies indicate that people with disabilities are loyal, dedicated and productive contributors in the workplace and enhance the work environment by encouraging similar behaviors in their colleagues.
The author has designed two workshops as part of a train-the-trainer program for Employment Training Specialists who work with the non-profit organization Community Work Services (CWS). CWS provides training and job placement to individuals who have varying degrees and types of disabilities. The first of the two workshops is entitled Listening Skills: the Gateway to Successful Communication in the Workplace and is an experiential workshop focusing on the use of critical and creative thinking skills and adult learning techniques to develop active, empathic and reflective listening skills. The second workshop is entitled Encouraging Appropriate Behaviors in the Workplace and uses similar techniques to develop the concepts of respectful interactions and communications through the development of tolerance for differing points of view, interviewing skills and customer service.
subject codes .COR

Ashley Smith
Using Critical and Creative Thinking to Enhance Productivity in Integrated Marketing Communications Meetings and Procedures
2010, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
This paper provides a teaching model for how to effectively incorporate Critical and Creative Thinking (CCT) methods into a business setting to initiate organizational change. I developed a workshop on workplace meetings based on the imperfections of the marketing team at “ICS.” The workshop touches on CCT methods that are needed in order for organizations to change. I also integrated CCT methods into the Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Procedure to enhance productivity and produce results. Integrated marketing is made up of many pieces of the media field, but often the participants in IMC are searching for the same end result. Following the views of Kevin Roberts, communication among each participant is critical in order for great brands to survive or to move products strategically. IMC is an important resource for a company, because like sales, the end result is to create loyalty and awareness among consumers, and to sell and to generate revenue. Communication is a key element in making sure that people are on the same page in IMC in order to reach the end result. Effective workplace meetings, brainstorming sessions, and other collaborations enhance communication, which is a vital piece in moving forward in business.
subject codes .COR
(Full Text)

Sharon Sprong
Adolescents and AIDS: Dealing with Misconceptions
1991, December
Directed by Carol Smith
Many adolescents are at risk for becoming infected with the human immunoideficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This is due to the risk-taking behaviors that are common among young people, including experimentation with drugs and sexual intercourse. Some of the factors that contribute to their decisions to engage in high-risk behaviors may include misconceptions they have regarding HIV/AIDS. In this study a clinical interview was designed to determine the prevalence of three misconceptions about AIDS among adolescents: l:): the belief that they are invulnerable to the disease; 2) the idea that transmission of HIV occurs through risk groups rather than risk behaviors; and 3) the negative emotional reaction to having casual contact with a person with HIV/AIDS (PWA). The interview was given to twelve high school students in Boston before and ten after they participated in a peer leadership training program using the curriculum Peer Leadership Preventing AIDS, to see if the misconceptions existed and if there was any evidence of conceptual change following the program.
Prior to the training program, two subjects held only one misconception, four held two misconceptions held by the subjects. The greatest improvement was in Misconception 2, followed by #l and then #3. It appears that conceptual change did occur for most of the subjects. This may have been due in part to using the Peer Leadership Preventing AIDS curriculum, since it emphasizes looking at one's self-theory. The participants were encouraged to look deep within themselves and consider their positions on several critical issues, them discuss them with others in the group. This may have facilitated the exchange of conflicting or alternative views.
In the areas where the least change occurred in misconceptions, particularly the subjects' emotional reaction to having casual contact with a PWA, suggestions for improving the curriculum were made. In addition, areas for further study were proposed, including a larger sample with representatives from a variety of peer leadership programs (school- and community-based, urban, suburban and rural areas, etc.) a follow-up interview six to twelve months after completion of the training program and interviews of young people who interacted with the peer leaders.
subject codes .MED.GOV

Anne Marie Stanton
When There Will Be Great Women Artists
1999, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
Linda Nochim has posed the question why there are no great women artists? (Nochim 1988) While this question can be challenged as a issue of perspective, I attempt to address it as an actual phenomenon. What is it that limits the productivity of women in art?
Historically, women in the modem industrialized world have been objectified and stereotyped, and I will present a brief overview that discusses the definition of woman in this context (Bohan 1993, West and Zimmerman 1987, Hare-Mustin and Marecek 1990), and also demonstrate this view has saturated society. As a first step to change, women must recognize the impact of this historic perspective on their attitudes, thinking, and behavior.
A second step considers the research that the psychology of women differs significantly from that of men, and this can influence how relationships and priorities are developed in their lives (Gilligan, 1993, Bepko and Krestan, 1993, Miller, 1986, Belenky, et. al., 1986). These two steps attempt to define some of the internal conflicts facing women artists.
In addition, I will also examine the material impediments women artist face. For example, Csikszentmihalyi 's (1991) research highlights obstacles many women artists encounter entering a predominantly male art world. The forces that determine the commercial success or failure of an artist are generally male-controlled, and this can add to the invisibility of the woman as artist (Mavor 1996, Nemser 1975).
These influences should be recognized for the artist to make clear choices to exercise her creativity. External supports, with mentoring as an example, would provide compatible structure, both in terms of women's "ways of knowing" (Belenky, et.al., 1986), and their need for connection. Through the combined strategies of metacognition as well as external supports, women artists will have another tool to find their voice in the world of art.
subject codes .GEN.CUL

Heidi Straghan
How a Business Plan Turned Into a Life Plan Through The Application of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills
2004, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
My entrance into the Critical and Creative Thinking Program at the University of Massachusetts Boston was a personal quest for skills which would clarify and focus both my personal and professional life. My work in this program has provided me with critical thinking skills that allow me to examine assumptions, reasonings, evidence and biases brought to bear on issues by myself and others (Nickerson, Perkins, and Smith 1985). Newfound creative thinking skills allow me to explore complex, disordered, ambiguous problems and make connections I had not previously seen. It has helped me identify a creative energy I did not know I had.
This paper is a "real time" example of what happens when one puts their critical and creative thinking skills to work- the sometimes unexpected but positive results! My intention as I started this project was to create a business plan. What was originally intended to be a small step in that process- creating a fishbone diagram- took me in a whole new direction and in addition to a business plan I also created a life plan incorporating important elements in my life that were identified through the fishbone technique. I have used the fishbone image to guide the reader through the paper- taking them on my personal journey from high school through the following 16 years as I struggled to find my place in the world.
subject codes.RPN

Clare Sullivan
Critical Thinking and Middle School Mathematics
1990, December
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Critical thinking is an area of research which has profound implications for educators. Included in this research are the components of creative thinking as well as those of critical thinking and the dispositions needed to do both. Through critical and creative thinking research we are learning what thinking is and what characteristics good thinkers have. If the ultimate goal of educators is to produce a thinking citizenry, then educators need to avail themselves of this current research knowledge.
To date, the experts in critical and creative thinking have addressed the curriculum areas of English Literature, Social Studies and Science, using many examples from each of how an educator might teach thinking skills while teaching these subjects. However, examples of how one might teach critical and creative thinking skills in the subject area of mathematics are decidedly absent. While there is research on mathematical problem solving and quantitative thinking in young children how critical and creative thinking can be taught at this level within the subject area of mathematics is unclear.
What is needed, then, is an exploration of the specific critical and creative thinking skills used in a mathematics curriculum which is designed for good quantitative thinking. This paper presents an analysis of those thinking skills defined in current research as critical and/or creative which can be found in selected activities of a middle school mathematics curriculum.
The curriculum selected was designed by its authors to develop good quantitative thinking in students. For the purposes of this analysis, that goal is assumed to be accomplished, that is, that the students are developing good quantitative thinking when using this program. Therefore, the analysis of thinking skills in this paper goes beyond the goal of the authors to show another level of thinking skills which can be used to enhance the material. After the analysis methods are given for classroom instruction, assessment of students and for the transfer of the critical and creative thinking skills to other areas of the middle school curriculum.
subject codes .MSE.SCI

Michael Sullivan
Teaching American History and Thinking Skills: The Nineteen Twenties in America and Lessons in Critical and Creative Thinking and Philosophical Inquiry
1990, December
Directed by John Murray
This thesis will explore some of the many options for integrating thinking skills into the traditional study of American History, specifically the study of the 1920's in American History. This study invites examination of elements of critical and creative thinking such as: recognition and analysis of stereotypes; analysis of word meaning and connotation, as in the recognition of the use and misuse of euphemism; evaluation of cause and effect relationships; evaluation of sources; drawing of parallels between historical periods including connections to the present; group problem solving which utilizes creative thinking dispositions and skills; and, philosophical discourse which is directly related to the content area. This list is not inclusive, of course, nor is the content area focus unique. Such work can be readily incorporated into more traditional study of any time period. This paper offers a limited model for such work, and the argument that such integration between content area study and thinking skills development is important and quite practical.
subject codes .MSE

Nancy Sullivan
1997, December
Directed by
For many years, as a teacher of literature, I just taught the story- who did what, to whom, when, where, and why. The students in my classes explored all the conflicts in the literature they read, memorized beautiful lines of poetry and answered questions that correspond to all levels of Blooms's Taxonomy. Then, at some point in the 80's, while teaching Romeo and Juliet and reading newspaper accounts about teenage suicide rates, I realized that I needed to do more than just teach the story. I could no longer simply teach this play without dealing with several ethical issues. Here we were, in a suburban high school, banning certain articles of clothing from school in order to try to discourage the formation of gangs while the minor characters in the this play, the servants in the two major households, are mindlessly engaged in street fights to perpetuate a feud that they do not understand. I had to help my students to see the connections between this behavior and the behavior of some of their peers who were daily involved in similar street fights for often as vague a cause as the one portrayed in the play. They there is the issue of drug use...
subject codes

Julia Swan
Conceptual Understanding of Quadratic Expressions
1992, December
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
The learning theories of Skemp (l987) and various conceptual change theorists are synthesized to delineate four levels of understanding: instrumental understanding which is equivalent to unconnected or weakly connected surface knowledge; relational understanding which is the beginning of deeper, more connected knowledge; symbolic understanding which provides a sound connection between surface and deep structures; and conceptual understanding which demands a level of commitment to and trust in a framework of constant and connected knowledge.
A teaching model is presented to assist the educator in teaching for the goal of conceptual understanding in students. The model illustrates the premise that teaching for conceptual understanding within a specific content area must take into account content skills, student dispositions, creative and critical thinking skills, and teaching/learning strategies, all within the realm of critical thought. Perkin's (l986) Knowledge as Design questions of purpose, structure, model and argument are offered as a strategy to harness and focus the student's content skills, dispositions and thinking skills to form a viable means of constructing conceptual understanding in a content area.
The topic of quadratic expressions is used as an illustration of the learning theory and the model of teaching. The four levels of understanding are outlined for the structure of a quadratic expressions, the evaluation of quadratic expressions, binomial multiplication and factoring. A geometric model is used to build relational, symbolic and conceptual understandings.
The teaching model is applied to the teaching of quadratic expressions with the possible source of knowledge, prior misconceptions and required content skills being delineated. The Knowledge as Design strategy, with accompanying creative and critical thinking skills, is analyzed for its effectiveness as a tool in enabling students to construct conceptual understanding.
Although it may not always be practical to guide students all the way to conceptual understanding for every concept, it should be an educator's ideal goal. If teachers would begin to teach for the minimum of relational understanding, students would exhibit fewer misconceptions in their understanding and have more faith in their own knowledge.
subject codes .MSE

Davis Sweet
Teaching Critical Thinking as a Late-Life Career Change
2004, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
Having studied philosophy intensely for ten years and then spent twenty years in the computer industry, I am now embarking in a new career teaching critical thinking. My teaching style will draw heavily on my philosophical background, but my studies in the Critical and Creative Thinking Program have broadened my conception of critical thinking. In my synthesis paper, I discuss the important elements of critical thinking, the tools I intend to use to teach critical thinking, initial efforts to create a forum for critical thinking professionals (building on a dormant think tank hosted by CCT), and the steps I plan to take after graduation to secure a teaching position.
The important elements of critical thinking include dispositions, (intellectual honesty, Socratic ignorance, dispassion, common sense, intellectual rigor, an ear for language, the dispositions to be curious and questioning, broad, adventurous and organized thinkers, and the disposition to give thinking time), close analysis, linguistic analysis, logical analysis, definition of words, use of rules of thumb and aphorisms, and scrutiny of examples. The tools I intend to use to teach critical thinking include lists of guidelines, posters, handouts, facilitating, group activities, problem-based learning, free writing, methodological believing, and scrutiny of examples. In a sample syllabus divided into eleven lessons, I introduce these elements and techniques and include a separate lesson specifically about the Internet.
subject codes.TCE

Jeremy Szteiter
Exploring The Teaching Mind: Extending Participation in Lifelong Learning Through Engagement With a Supportive Community
2009, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
This paper extends the notion of lifelong learning beyond gaining knowledge over a lifetime to preparing oneself to teach what has been learned to others. The "Teaching Mind," as I define the idea, involves thinking about what has been learned and what one knows by reconsidering that knowledge through the eyes of self as a teacher. The Teaching Mind assumes a broad notion of teaching that relates to informal and community learning across all areas of life and culture, beyond professional teaching in formal schools. The pursuit of the Teaching Mind is highly accessible to all those who wish to expand their personal and organizational participation in lifelong learning, and four qualities constitute this possibility: it is inclusive of all people across varied personal and professional situations who are not necessarily professional teachers but have diverse motivations to learn to teach; it is communal such that it is explored in the company of others; it is expansive to allow meanings of teaching and learning that are outside of conventional understanding; it is familiar by using natural, flexible ways of behaving and communicating to support learning about teaching while welcoming experimentation, enjoyment, ambiguity, and humor into the process.
In the active process of engaging with others to explore the Teaching Mind, face-to-face group forums are essential, as one's progress in relation to the Teaching Mind necessarily involves sharing reflections, ideas, and questions with others in a focused way within a conducive environment. I present a collection of fundamental principles for orienting a group of lifelong learners to engage in the pursuit of the Teaching Mind together. Further, I offer a model that outlines how a group might initiate a Teaching Mind exploration in a specific, practical way; this model can be adapted by groups of private individuals or sponsoring organizations to their own interests. The core of the model is a cycle of reflecting upon past experiences, engaging with others to interpret reflections and expose new insights, and imagining how this new understanding informs future teaching possibilities.
subject codes .FRP.TCE
(Full Text)

Linda Taylor
The Cultivation of Thinking Dispositions in Grades Three and Four
1997, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
Synthesis
subject codes .ELE

Regina Temple
Critical and Creative Thinking and Humor
1992, September
Directed by Delores Gallo
Schools need to be more creative in helping students devise adaptive methods so as the ability to analyze, compare/contrast, and evaluate, and creative thinking behaviors, such as fluency, flexibility, and originality, are needed to solve the complex problems which students face in today's world. This thesis suggests the idea that humor, particularly humor resulting from the recognition and resolution of incongruity, found in jokes, puns, metaphors and visual representations, is related to and can facilitate the basic processes of critical and creative thinking, and hence facilitate complex problem solving.
This thesis examines the importance of finding ways to initiate humor into the educational experience by incorporating humor into the classroom and by incorporating it into critical and creative thinking activities. Humor is intrinsically enjoyable, facilitates retention, aides in coping with frustration and stress and is a mechanism for cultivating adaptive methods. The teacher who uses humor makes learning more interesting and enjoyable and promotes a student's intellectual, social and emotional development. In order to teach for critical and creative thinking, instruction using and including the development of humor should be considered as both an appropriate goal and a motivating pedagogical strategy.
This thesis also suggests the relationship between humor and critical and creative thinking. Summarized are the three historical explanations of the origins of humor: superiority theory, relief theory and incongruity theory. Current research in critical and creative thinking as well as problem solving is explored. The psychological and sociological theories together with the functions of humor in relation to critical and creative thinking and problem solving are examined and elaborated upon.
Presented in this thesis are the results of a student survey which focused on the impact that humor had on classroom environment, on student attitude toward the teacher, and on student learning and memory. The results support the positive impact of humor on student learning. In conclusion, I describe the ways in which I used humor in my classroom to create a positive climate, to present and deal with management problems, and to facilitate learning curricula.
subject codes .ELE

Tara Tetzlaff
Constructivist Learning Verses Explicit Teaching: A Personal Discovery of Balance
2009, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
This synthesis reflects my exploration of the theories of constructivist learning, explicit teaching, and social learning in the context of my work as instructor at Children's Technology Workshop- a company that runs creative technology programs for children. I provide a description of each theory with examples based on my experience at CTWorkshop and claim that while constructivist learning and explicit teaching do have some noticeable differences, they share the common element of social learning opportunities. Additionally, I argue that constructivist learning and explicit teaching are not necessarily incompatible approaches to education, but can be effectively combined to minimize the deficits and utilize the strengths of each, and such a combined approach to instruction can enhance the social learning opportunities available in the educational environment of CTWorkshop's icamp program.
Since this paper is reflective of my own, personal experiences working in a particular educational environment, I do not except that the specific uses of these theories described in this paper will necessarily pertain to the educational settings in which others may work; however, my intent is not to design a plan for others to use in their own instruction, but rather inspire others by my example to think more deeply about their own methods of instruction. As my reflective conclusion explains, the process of working on this project has affected me deeply, and I hope this paper may motivate others to seek their own insights.
subject codes.LRN
(Full Text)

Leslie Thurber-McGuire
Curriculum Unit: Developing Respect
1997, May
Directed by
Moral education is a much needed aspect in the lives of today's children, in order for them to be functioning, contributing members of society both as children and as adults. Despite the ongoing social changes, instruction in basic moral values is essential. There are numerous theories and views on the topic of moral education. When deciding how to approach the topic one needs to think critically. I moral education is to be taught outside of the home, a joint effort needs to be made by all those involved in evaluating and implementing a moral education program.
This synthesis project includes an overview of approaches to moral education and related topics and a curriculum unit. The unit offers one option to educators for teaching one element of moral education and that is the quality of respect: respect for self and others.
The paper begins with delineating the need for moral education. It discusses some of the possible factors that may contribute to this growing need. Moral education itself had gone through many changes over the past century. The path to moral education has taken over the years is summarized including current beliefs and practices. When the topic of moral and education arises so do many question. Questions such as: who should teach it and why, what should be taught and how. This paper attempts to give some of the many views concerning these questions.
The core of this synthesis project is a curriculum unit on the theme of respect. An important component of the lessons is the development of critical and creative thinking skills. The works of Gary Davis, Delores Gallo, and Richard Paul are used to defining what these skills entail. Another important aspect of the unit is the use of literature in the lessons. The value of literature in moral education is presented in this paper. The overall goal of the unit is for students to gain self respect as well as respect for others.
subject codes .MOR

David Tick
A Critical Evaluation of the Thinkabout Instructional Television Curriculum
1991, May
Directed by Steven H. Schwartz
As educators in a changing society, one of our objectives is to guide students in their own learning. To accomplish this goal, most of us develop and implement educational programs from a variety of sources that, we hope, inspire students to ruminate what has been presented and discussed in our classrooms. With such a plethora of materials available, what criteria should teachers use to assess whether or not a particular curriculum effectively promotes individual, logical and ideational thinking?
ThinkAbout is a video series of sixty (fifteen minute) video segments and thirteen program clusters, formulated and designed to enhance the overall thinking of students, ten to twelve years of age. The curriculum is produced by a consortium of state and provincial education agencies in the United States and Canada under the supervision and direction of the Agency for Instruction Television, an American-Canadian Organization located in Bloomington, Indiana.
ThinkAbout is an interesting curriculum because of its comprehensive objectives and practical teaching strategies. However, is it a cogent way of presenting critical and creative thinking, and does it arouse and stimulate the processes necessary to enhance thinking skills better than other curriculum? The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the theoretical bases of ThinkAbout and critically evaluate a sample of eight programs from two clusters. This thesis also evaluates the connection between the theory and strategies utilized, reviews some previous evaluations, and proposes specific changes and modifications to address some of the alleged methodological problems or limitations.
While concrete evidence of gains in conceptual thinking is difficult to report, there is evidence to suggest that ThinkAbout does have an impact on its students. By influencing the attitudes of its viewers, the curriculum is able to create a new forum that enables students to generate and exchange ideas.
subject codes .MSE.CUL

Shari Tishman
Philosophic Inquiry in a Pre-College Setting
1984, May
Directed by ?
...there is a natural confusion about what philosophy is, and what its role in education should be. What sort of background do teachers need to teach philosophy in elementary, middle and secondary school? How is it related to other studies? Should there be special philosophy curricula, or can philosophical activity occur in all classes? What materials can be used? One aspect of philosophy that sets it apart from the hard and social sciences is that it is continually grappling with its own definition. Unlike, say, biology, which can be defined without actually doing biology, 'knowing is doing' in philosophy. The first part of this thesis aims to help teachers think philosophically about what the boundaries of philosophy are, and, in doing so, come to an understanding of its nature. It is hoped that doing this will illustrate to teachers the relevance of philosophy to general education, so that their own inquiry can be a model for introducing philosophy into their classrooms.
...The conception of philosophy advanced in this thesis is that it is a constellation of many different kinds of questions and considerations, unified by a process of inquiry into the foundations of human endeavor. As we have seen so far, this process involves the critical ability to assess and develop sound reasoning, and the creative ability to provide hypothetical possibilities that extend the scope of inquiry. It also includes valuing for their own sake the intellectual attitudes and dispositions which nurture the inclination to probe deeply into fundamental questions, and, in doing so, form the larger context in which these thinking skills are applied. Because this thesis is concerned with philosophy in pre-college education, and because my conception of philosophy implies that its scope is the foundational issues in all areas of study, I will inquire further into the relation of philosophy to general education, and review some existing curricula for the teaching of pre-college philosophy. The third chapter of this thesis includes a survey of some critical and creative thinking skills relevant to philosophic inquiry; the fourth chapter is a discussion of selected attitudes and dispositions that help define the larger context in which inquiry occurs.
subject codes .MOR

Robert Alfred Tocci
Critical Thinking Skills and Motivation: A Model for Literature
1987, September
Directed by Arthur Millman
Maslow claims that the "study of moptiovation is the study of ultimate human goals, desires, or needs." (Maslow 1970, 22) He implies that the topic of motiovation is as rich and varied as the types of human personalities. My interpretation of Maslow's claim is not limited to only living people. It also includes characters in literature whoaren't living in a physical sense, but who, nevertheless, hae a life on the pages pf a book. My original idea was to help students discover characters' lives by using a model, which I devised, to determine motivation.
subject codes .WRL

Irvent Torres
Young Adults' Moral Education: A Critical Reflective Thinking Approach
1993, May
Directed by
This thesis proposes a theoretical educational model, described as intentional education, based on critical reflective thinking and characterized by a dialogical and dialectical educational environment. The educational aim is characterized by the five R's: responsibleness, reasonableness, reflectiveness, respectfulness and relationship.
Intentional education expands on the constructivist theory and incorporates critical reflective thinking as psychological and educational tools. It recognizes the importance of the spiritual dimension early in the education and moral development of people. A theoretical curriculum model is provided to train educators, counselors and religious administrators and to show how intentional education differs from basic values, values clarification and cognitive constructivist theories.
This thesis focuses on young adults and the effect of overprotective, authoritarian parenting on their moral development. Specifically, the focus is on young adults who are enmeshed in a particular crisis of moral development and who are the products of a caring and authoritarian parenting style. The argument is made that these young adults experience both moral and identity crises which stunt their consistent development and that these crises surface later in adulthood than previously noted in the literature.
Four important dimensions to the problems and dilemmas confronted during young adulthood are discussed: (1) educational: cultivation of career or vocational choices; (2) psychological: cultivation of relationships, public and private; (3) sociological: cultivation of social and community values; and (4) theological: determination of moral and spiritual values.
One of its goals is to generate knowledge with understanding that serves academic and nonacademic pursuits. The claim is made that knowledge without the understanding of its social and moral consequences does not promote the moral development of a just, responsible and thoughtful multicultural society. Education and moral development mean more than knowing what to do; rather they represent understanding, self-consistency and knowledge of what kind of human to be. For people to understand what they are taught, they need to reflect critically on their behavior, actions and feelings. To do this they must emotionally wrestle, with themselves, with the past, with the present and with the future, and fully utilize imagination and critical reflective thinking.
subject codes .MOR.COM

Frederic Torzs
Interpersonal Communication and Critical Thinking; Exploring Power and Solidarity in a Computer-Mediated Conversation.
1992, May
Directed by John R. Murray
This thesis is an examination of a computer-mediated conversation among a group of education researchers. It examines how, even in the context of written, non face-to-face communication around a central concept in education theory, language continues to serve an interpersonal function: researchers will structure their communication in terms of power (the need to preserve distance from others, to feel independent and protect privacy) and solidarity (the need to have a sense of community with others, to feel accepted and involved).
It is the claim in this thesis that the literature on critical thinking focuses on refining one's speech so that meaningful information can be clearly transmitted. The critical thinker, in this view, needs to be aware of, and pure his/her communication of bias words, euphemisms, innuendo, marked words, hedging equivocation, emotional language, vagueness, ambiguity, and the like, in order to be able to focus on increasing ideational clarity for oneself and others.
However, this thesis points out that what the literature on critical thinking focuses on purging from communication is, in fact, an essential part of the interpersonal function of language, and that the failure to understand this leaves a gap in the development of critical thinking as a viable educational objective.
subject codes .TEC.THR

Jean Tower
Using Computer Technology to Teach Thinking
1996, September
Directed by John R. Murray
The successful reform of education in America will center on student learning and will bring together three seemingly separate agendas: student outcomes that reflect deep understanding and higher order thinking skills, curriculum that includes well-integrated uses of technology, and professional development for teachers that incorporates the two previously named agendas Each of these initiatives alone has potential to impact education positively, but any single one in the absence of the other two will not be as effective.
This thesis examines the state of education today with regard to student goals and outcomes and teacher education and training. It is the finding of this thesis that schools do not set strong student goals and that the inclusion of critical and creative thinking skills is markedly absent from those goals. The author finds that student goals relevant to critical and creative thinking are crucial to education and that to teach with such goals and objectives will require extensive teacher training.
This thesis goes on to demonstrate that technology is a great tool to use for the infusion of critical and creative thinking skills into the curriculum. Computer technology can be seen as a tool for thought, and teachers can encourage the use of the computer as such.
Chapter four, the culmination of this thesis, is a pre-service teacher preparation course which incorporates both integration of technology and infusing teaching with higher order
thinking skills outcomes. The course design and philosophy bring together the three agendas: student goals of critical and creative thinking, the incorporation of technology into
the curriculum, and extensive teacher training focused on sound pedagogical techniques.
subject codes .SCI

Matt Tower
Developing Healthy and Balanced Minds: How Creative, Critical and Moral Thinking Promote Good Cognition
2009, May
Directed by Peter Taylor
My experiences with the Critical and Creative Thinking program have given me time to articulate and reflect on how creative, critical and moral thinking relate to a healthy and balanced mind. This paper explores each of these three thinking styles individually through reflection and literature review, and then combines them into coherent pictures like a biphasic cyclical machine and a garden of components to be cultivated. I propose that by promoting and balancing creative, critical and moral thinking, we can develop healthy and balanced cognition for both ourselves as individuals, and as groups.
subject codes.THR
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David Valdez
Including Spirituality Into Systems of Western Psychology
1998, December
Directed by Delores Gallo
In our culture, we tend to separate religion and psychology, spiritual practice and therapy. If we are to redress this division, we must appreciate the need and appropriateness of reintroducing attention to the spiritual dimension of the individual back into Systems of Western psychology.
This paper critically regards former attempts and limitations to relate issues of spirituality into the science of Western psychology. It explores the development of Allport's (1967) and Baton's (1976) research on religious orientation and constructing spiritual inventories. In addition, the paper also provides a definition of mental health as it reviews empirical research that regards spirituality as a legitimate independent variable. These experiments help to justify the inclusion of the spiritual dimension into psychological investigation and into modes of Western psychology.
The paper then examines issues of spirituality in the frameworks of psychotherapy. In an effort to address this spiritual omission, this paper explores the work of Moore (1992) and Hillman (1975), who call for the idea of polytheism to be Infused Into therapeutic techniques. This idea considers multiple psychological needs of an Individual, which Moore and HilIman describe as addressing the care of the soul. In this way, psychology may invite a serious discussion of spirituality and its role in healthy functioning.
Finally, the paper addresses the issue of reductionistic language in some sectors of Western psychology and its relationship to issues of spirituality Specifically, this paper explores the potential of religious language as a tool for reintroducing the spiritual dimension back into the realms of Western psychology.
The paper then concludes with practical recommendations for constructing empirical investigations that use widely accepted and replicable methodologies to study spiritual phenomenon. If followed, these recommendations can contribute new knowledge about the value of spiritual practices to sound psychological health. Such efforts will not only add depth and breath to our Western psychology, but also add insight into the role of spirituality in the fully functioning individual
subject codes .CUL.DIV

Luz Valdez
A Journey To Make Documentaries That Entertain As Well As Enlighten
2006, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
I am a documentary filmmaker whose films focus on ordinary people living in different circumstances, and places in the world, who are trying to overcome life's obstacles so they can reach their goals. I have always believed that these lives are rich and full of meaning. I want my documentaries to address a general audience-ordinary people that want to be entertained, while being psychologically and intellectually engaged in the experience. By presenting topics that incite curiosity for learning, I hope to generate a real desire for knowledge in my audience. I hope to help them feel that a continuous acquisition of knowledge is essential to them as individuals, both emotionally and cognitively. This paper sets a frame to support my endeavor. Understanding better how audiences structure their thoughts and make meaning of things while viewing documentaries would help me to better manage their needs and expectations, and establish more fulfilling connections with them. To this end, I explored different aspects of film theory, cognitive psychology and audience exploratory research, paying special attention to a positive role for emotions. I argue that the architecture of a documentary film does not have to be different from the architecture of a fiction film because both of them share a common goal, namely, to shift the audience's perspective of their human legacy and to inspire individuals to reflect and perhaps make changes that may improve the quality of their lives. In this sense, my future documentaries thoughts and emotions will be crucial in a process that uses different techniques and resources based on a creative and critical thinking approach. I also present a classification of documentaries and suggested titles to help the audience to identify what types of documentaries fulfill better their intellectual and emotional needs. The criteria for this classification system have been developed with four main questions in mind regarding documentary: What to tell? (that covers the topic), how to tell? (that covers the narration resources and techniques to be used), whom to tell? (that covers the type of audience to whom the documentary is addressed to), and what is the degree of subjectivity and creativity used in the manipulation of materials?
subject codes .ART

Elizabeth Van Atten
Looking for the Question: A Critical Thinking Goal for a Second Grade Teacher
1992, May
Directed by Patricia S. Davidson
Advocates for critical thinking have steadfastly maintained that skills for understanding how problems are solved are more important than memorizing facts. Such problems would be more representative of real life than the usual contrived problems created to practice an academic skill.
Piaget is said to have asked how his findings could accelerate learning. In fact, he had been asked this so often, he called it the "Americana question" (Piaget in Pulaski, l980, p. 202). His response was that educators have not effectively addressed three fundamental questions; What is the aim of teaching? What should we teach? and How should we teach? These basic questions remain unanswered today and are a continuing challenge to teachers.
This thesis focuses on second grade students and advocates that traditional academic practice be more developmentally appropriate. The author addresses these issues daily in her classroom by providing many opportunities for the students to see the usefulness of acquiring the basic skills of reading, writing, and mathematics. Furthermore, these skills become the tools useful for reaching the primary goal of the author, which is to develop the traits of personal responsibility, social responsibility, self-dependency, leadership, organization, and concern for the environment.
Activities for practicing the skills mentioned above are designed to duplicate real-life situations. Many opportunities for critical thinking as well as creative thinking are included as a vital part of each day. The classroom itself is filled with ingredients which stimulate the natural curiosity of children. By working a time into the daily schedule that allows students to select what they want to do from a wide number of choices, such as arts, blocks, carpentry, cooking, crafts, games, keyboarding, planting science, theme work, tutoring, and writing, they begin to generate their own ideas.
"Looking for the Question" refers to the anticipation of requests posed, by children whose curiosity has been stimulated by their surroundings. The ultimate goal of teaching for critical thinking has been fulfilled, as a teacher and students alike search for answers amidst a climate of self-growth and shared responsibilities.
subject codes .ELE

Lisa Veldran
Cultivating Thinking Dispositions in Middle School Learning Disabled Students: A Unit Plan
1999, December
Directed by Peter Taylor
Thinking dispositions are defined as "inclinations and habits of the mind that benefit productive thinking" (Tishman, Perkins, and Jay 1995, 37). As a special needs teacher for 13 years, I have observed that learning disabled students who have not acquired certain thinking dispositions often encounter great difficulty learning skills and strategies that aid them in successful task completion. I believe that time should be allotted in the curriculum to specifically teach and cultivate thinking dispositions in these students. These "habits of mind" will be the building blocks that help learning disabled students become ready, willing and able to acquire and apply specific study skills or cognitive strategies to content areas in school.
I present a unit I have created, titled "Cultivating Thinking Dispositions" that, using content from their regular education curriculum, will allow learning disabled students to practice integrating nine specific thinking dispositions into various academic and social situations. The dispositions are critical listening, good questioning, wondering, perseverance, controlling impulsivity, perspective taking, reflective thinking, goal setting, and decision making.
I highlight specific research that supports the need for cultivating thinking dispositions in learning disabled students, including research on metacognition, transfer, and Vygotsky's Theory of Proximal Development. I also recommend that when implementing this unit teachers use techniques of reciprocal teaching and scaffolded instruction, and strive for a classroom culture that integrates thinking dispositions into all aspects of the curriculum.
As Oxman-Michelli states, "dispositions will develop as they are welcomed, encouraged, supported, and rewarded during the course of mindful activities " (Oxman-Michelli 1992, 3). Cultivating thinking dispositions within the learning disabled population at the middle school level is well worth the time and investment given by both the teachers and students.
subject codes .MSE.LRN

Thomas Vendetti
A Thinking Skills Approach to Affirmation and Conflict Resolution
1990, May
Directed by
subject codes .ELE

Benjamin Wade
Critical and Creative Thinking for Corporate Managers
1991, December
Directed by John R. Murray
The need for critical and creative thinking (CCT) in the affairs of mankind has never been so great. The rate of change in all areas of life continues to increase, bringing with those changes problems that need solutions. To meet this need, problem solving, supported and integrated with critical and creative thinking skills, is now receiving increased attention at all levels of education. But the need for solutions to today's problems can't wait for the next generation. The author argues that there is a great need for CCT training in the business world and especially in the corporate sector.
The author addresses this need by presenting a five half-day seminar curriculum to introduce basic CCT skills and strategies to corporate managers. The seminars are designed to accomplish the following:
Instill an awareness of mind among managers that includes and emphasizes metacognition (i. e. thinking about thinking).
Introduce managers to critical and creative thinking skills and strategies in managerial problem solving situations.
Acquaint managers with the principles necessary to create and support a critical and creative thinking environment in their workplace.
Provide follow-up assessment in the form of pre and post seminar surveys designed to elicit evidence of possible conceptual change in participants, as well as ;other evaluative factors.
The thesis introduces a theoretical and practical framework that supports the curriculum in a number of areas including critical and creative thinking, metacognition, problem solving and conceptual change. The thesis attempts to introduce conceptual change in the following areas:
Mind as a manageable resource and the concept of managing this resource for thinking.
Metacognition as am important thinking skill for managers.
Critical thinking as an essential ingredient in problem solving.
Guidelines for a classroom and workplace environment that encourages and supports CCT are developed. The guidelines are demonstrated in the seminar environment and also taught to seminar participants as management principles to be implemented in their workareas. These principles are designed to encourage and support CCT in the workplace for both managers and the employees they manage, creating businesses in which everyone values and practices critical and creative thinking.
subject codes .COR

Laurie Jo Wallace
Creative Drama and Youth Voice: Teaching Health Topics and Empowerment Through Theater and Peer Education
1997, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
In this paper, the Teenage Girls InFormed (TGIF) theater project has shown the power and value of using theater as a creative and critical teaching tool in order to reduce violence in girls' lives. The introduction explains the nature of the project which uses drama as a teaching tool in a peer leadership project focusing on girls and violence. The paper explains in detail the process of developing the theater piece through the individual "stories" of four Boston high school students and one college student. The performance piece was then performed for middle school audiences with the goal of involving the audience in discovering and creating strategies for violence reduction among young women in the areas of interpersonal violence and relationship abuse. Three major areas of research were addressed: I) critical and creative thinking, 2) creative drama, and 3) youth empowerment and peer leadership. Finally the evaluation of the project was developed through the implementation of several tools which indicated the growth of the peer leaders in theater skills, knowledge of strategies for violence prevention and personal confidence. The response of the audience was also assessed and further supported the efficacy of theater and peer leadership as teaching and empowerment methods.
subject codes .MED

Angela K. Walsh
Structured Preoperative Education For Cataract Surgery Patients: A Creative Teaching Model
2001, May
Directed by Nina Greenwald
The objective of this synthesis is to propose a more effective instructional model for educating preoperative cataract surgery patients. The aim is to use the adult learning theory to educate rather than transmit or share information with patients.
Current preoperative teaching practices in patient education were reviewed for their effectiveness in providing patients with an understanding of their diagnosis and the reasons for surgery. Sources for this include professional literature and information pertaining to the physical and psychological limitations of cataract surgery patients. Interviews were conducted with Ophthalmologists who perform the procedure, and a pilot study was conducted on twenty-seven patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery.
Based on this review, an analysis is made of key problems and the implications for change, with respect to existing patient education approaches. The results of this analysis become the basis for proposing a revised teaching model that invites patient participation and disseminates, reinforces and evaluates the extent to which preoperative information is successfully transmitted to a patient.
subject codes .MED

Kathleen Walsh
Embracing Systems Thinking and the Dialogue Process Within My Classroom
2004, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
The Critical and Creative Thinking program has introduced me to many new ways of looking at my classroom. As a music teacher who encounters many different situations on a daily basis, I have struggles to find more consistent ways of making my teaching more effective, and a more enjoyable process for both my students and myself. Some of the most helpful techniques and attitudes have come from the work of Peter Senge and his concept of "systems thinking". This concept, coupled with Senge's consideration of the Dialogue process as an effective communication tool, has greatly influenced and changed my teaching methods. Many of the things I had previously done in my classroom, that just seemed to "work" or be "right" at the time, now also have greater explanation as I find that they too were a natural part of Senge's considerations for which I had no name when I first applied them within my classroom. Now I have begun to name those most effective methods, and develop them further through my reading of Senge's works and further practice within the CCT program. Examples include a "check-in" process for kindergarten students and putting aside my prior expectations of students with learning disabilities.
This paper serves to show what my daily struggles consist of, how I now choose to see them, and how I plan to continue to improve my teaching methods through the continued use of Senge's theories.
subject codes.COM

Zhenxing Wang
Destination?: A Play About Workplace Ethics
2007, August
Directed by Lawrence Blum
Destination? is a play intended to arouse in the readers some reflections on issues of morality, professional ethics, creativity, and their relations to regulation and law. The readers are presented several conflicts that SPEEDY, the protagonist, encounters in his work environment of a taxi business. SPEEDY, a man of Chinese origin and a philosophical, creative thinker, identifies a source of the conflicts in the taxi business. He comes up a way to fix that problem, but it violates the regulations of the taxi company. The play thus brings forward an ethical issue. It leaves the question open whether it is ethical to break certain regulations of a company for which one works. The evolution of the play is also described.
subject codes.ART

Celeste Warner
Helping American businesses deliver exemplary customer service & recovering the costs associated with consumer silence
2002, May
Directed by Nina Greenwald
This synthesis proposes that consumers, who are motivated to provide feedback to businesses, can help these businesses provide more effective customer service. First, an overview of some literature and theories pertaining to consumer behavior and its relationship to customer service is presented. Next, field research conducted by the author indicates the need to redesign a customer service program she had previously implemented in a Vermont based nursing home. The results of this research, combined with the results of two sets of interviews with successful business professionals concerning the problems with implementing good customer service, strongly suggest that customer service training alone cannot generate customer feedback. The results indicate that, under normal circumstances, the average customer will remain silent when receiving less than adequate service. The proposal that a customer can be motivated to provide feedback to businesses via an intensive public relations campaign, is currently being tested by a pilot group of SouthCoast chamber businesses. This campaign includes the use of news releases, direct mail, radio and television. Should this proposal be correct, this synthesis will be available to Chambers of Commerce throughout the Country.
subject codes .COR

Barbara Waters
Applying Cognitive Strategies to Critical Barriers in Learning a Science Concept: Groundwater Conceptual Change
1989, May
Directed by Carol L. Smith
The thesis applies cognitive change strategies to teaching science concepts, with the ultimate purpose of promoting a conceptual change view of science learning in elementary school teachers. A twofold framework was structured to produce both change in teacher's specific science concepts and general views of the learning process. First, the teachers took part in an intervention that challenged their naive conceptions about Cape Cod groundwater. Then the teachers reflected on the strategies that helped bring about their own conceptual change and thought about how they could be applied to teaching science to children.
The research was accomplished through a four part intervention, with eleven elementary teachers (grades 3-5) over a two month period. The intervention consisted of pre and post-interviews, a workshop, a class demonstration, and readings. The study's intervention used recent cognitive research on conceptual change. The design of the learning model was centered around nine conditions for conceptual change including probing for misconceptions, creating cognitive conflict, applying analogies, and using directed discovery through interactive dialogue.
The philosophical bias of the study focused on the elementary teacher as a necessary partner to meaningful educational research. Until the elementary teacher is allowed to be a part of the process of developing new approaches to learning, research will remain with the academics and away from classrooms and students. By working with the eleven teachers on a co-professional basis, I received enthusiastic, honest, insightful responses to my questions.
The study produced evidence of significant change in the teachers' understanding of groundwater concepts. There was also evidence that the eleven teachers now have a beginning understanding of how to apply cognitive strategies to become more effective in their science teaching.
subject codes .SCI.ENV

Nathan Weaver
Third Divergence: Representations and Reflections
2012, May
Directed by Jeremy Szteiter
This paper presents an exploration of the process of developing a music composition through various layers of interaction with ideas through the abstract and the real. The composition is the most significant component of the project as a whole, and this paper regards itself as a sort of artist's journal developed during creation of the composition, making some attempt to show the process of improvising through the project. The project as a whole explores the various conceptualizations of the idea, of the relationship between the abstract and the real, and representations of a work that cannot be fully known. The composition itself represents the whole project through the interaction of two central ideas merging towards a circle of relation. Particular attention is given to the dynamic of composition and improvisation, and the role of improvisation in the creation of new work. subject codes.ART
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Catherine M. Weber
Creativity Empowerment for Women: Workshops and Practices for Lifelong Learning and Growth
1999, June
Directed by Delores Gallo
History shows that there have been far fewer eminently creative women than men in Western civilization due to culturally imposed gender biases that result in social and psychological challenges for women. These biases sometimes force women to make choices between procreation and creation and may limit resources like time, space and financial stability. As a result, many women feel powerless to fulfill their aspirations.
This paper adopts Amabile's finding that the creative person is influenced by internal and external factors including social-environmental variables and personality dispositions. Women, however, face unique challenges to the creative life due to social and culturally imposed gender biases (Abra, Bond, Hayes, Kirschenbaum, Mowrer, Popiel, Ochse, Purto, Pohlman, Pollard and Pollard, Reis and Valentine-French, and Woolf). Arredondo theorizes that women can learn new dispositions and attitudes as a path to empowerment, which is identified as creating identity through relationship, having clarity of thought and self-esteem through literature by Arredondo, Belenky, Miller, Surrey, and Wilson-Schaef. Attitudes and dispositions for creativity in women named in the literature by Amabile, Csikszentmihalyi, Davis, Estes and Torrance are used with adult learning principles and practices for teaching women. Theories by Davis, Eitington, Gardner, Johnson and Johnson, Lawler, and Rice are used for a workshop structure and strategy.
Using this strategy and structure, I developed a five-module curriculum that introduces and cultivates creative dispositions in women, develops confidence and self-knowledge while in relationship with others and supports continued creative practices for life-long learning. This curriculum goes beyond teaching concepts, to facilitating the incorporation of the production of creative work into every day life.
It is necessary for women to empower themselves if they are to have the same impact on the world that men have. This challenge raises questions about a system that was designed for the success of men by men which undervalues and shows little support for women in creative endeavors.
subject codes .GEN

Barbara Wickwire
Finding Voice: Turning Fragments Into Stories -- Teaching Memoir to Enhance the Journey of the Non-Confident Student 2002, June
Directed by Nina Greenwald
Finding Voice: Turning Fragments into Stories chronicles the author's journey in developing a course in the reading and writing of memoir in historical context for the non-confident adult literacy or community college student. This paper specifically addresses a class in an adult literacy program in Cambridge, Massachusetts where the author is currently teaching, and is also informed by her teaching experiences with community college students who must take remedial reading and writing courses before matriculating.
Rather than offering fragments of learning (i.e. grammar skills, building blocks) to a non-confident student population, the author proposes holistic learning experiences using the lens of memoir, and framed by constructivist practices that promote critical and creative thinking. The discussion of sources such as Peter Elbow's first and second order thinking about writing, and an experimental City College of New York program offering a whole language approach focusing on fluency, offers a rationale for constructing meaning through active learning.
This exploration into the essence of a good learning experience resulted in a series of three lessons on memoir. Using constructivist practices of the students making meaning, capturing their own experience to form the base of memoir in historical context, the lessons focus on fluency, flexibility and opportunity to transfer lessons learned into the wider world. As well as a journey in which students celebrate voice, this synthesis reflects a parallel one for the author documented in a reflections section following each lesson.
subject codes .TCE.WRL

Luanne Witkowski
Basic Training: Inspiring Institutional Change in Higher Education in the Fine and Professional Arts Through Wholistic Practice and Sustainability Education 2003, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
This paper documents the process by which I developed "Basic Training", a wholistic program for the education of artists, and came to see this program as a model for sustainability education more generally.
I am an artist who, shortly before joining the Critical and Creative Thinking Program (CCT) at the University of Massachusetts/Boston (UMass), left my full-time job so I could have more time for painting. I have done this - establishing a studio, a practice, and networking - culminating in both solo and group exhibits of my small and large paintings and works on paper. To make ends meet, I took on a half-time position as a painting studio manager at Massachusetts College of Art (MassArt). Finding that I was the first person in this position, I put in place studio guidelines and organization to ensure a personally healthy and environmentally responsible workspace. This led me to develop a three-part plan, "Basic Training" for artists, making use of the tools for personal and organizational change I was learning through my course work in CCT - i.e. strategic planning, evaluation, problem-based learning, and reflective practice. "Basic Training" not only includes health and environmental concerns, but also an artist's responsibility to engage with the communities that artists rely on to experience and support our artwork. In this spirit, I took up an offer of use of a storefront in Jamaica Plain, and initiated the Efka Project. As Efka Project's director and coordinator I coach emerging artists to prepare, publicize, curate, and staff their first exhibits. In turn, the Project provides an opportunity for the public to gain exposure to, and education about artists in their community who are about to embark on their careers. I went on to develop a curriculum for MassArt and explore the institutional challenges of getting this implemented. I was also drawn into education for sustainability efforts at UMass/Boston and have translated my MassArt course into a possible UMass course for a more general group of students, - not only artists. In the process described in this I have experimented and taken risks in applying what I was learning in CCT, reflecting on the outcomes, and building up a set of tools, practices, and perspectives that work in my specific professional and personal endeavors.
subject codes.ART.TCE

Mary Catherine Wollak
Paradox of Difference: Teaching Metacognition to Adolescents
1997, June
Directed by Lawrence Blum
As teachers we face the awesome responsibility of providing our students with the skills necessary for survival and success in our world of constant change. Hopefully, they will use their skills toward the betterment of society as well as for self-fulfillment. Adolescents are confronted with the challenge of exploring the world around them as they develop independence in their decision making. Providing opportunities in the classroom that have students test their decision making skills, examine the possible consequences of those decisions, and explore options and alternatives to the expected outcomes can make our students more critical and creative decision makers and problem solvers.
This thesis explores the use of metacognition in the lives of young adolescents, fifteen and sixteen years of age. In order to develop basic thinking skills, students must direct their attention to the processes and products of their thinking. Focusing on the use of language, particularly teens' use of stereotypes when in relationships with others, this thesis has students become aware of the creation and use of "loaded language," and how its use is indicative of faulty reasoning and the behavior of a non-critical thinker. By exercising metacognition students are instilled with a more "mindful" attitude of life that can develop and transform their internal life and their interpretation of who and what they are and what they may become.
This thesis will define the terms pertinent to the topic of metacognition, provide a rationale for teaching metacognition to teenagers, and present the responsibilities of the professional educator in introducing and enhancing the students' skills in metacognition. Also, this thesis will provide exemplary activities that demonstrate these opportunities as integrated within a sophomore English curriculum.
subject codes .TCE.MSE

Anna Yangco
Creating Inner and Outer Sacred Space: An Adult Learner Program's Wholistic Approach to Supporting Low-Income Women Who Have Been Impacted by Violence
2004, June
Directed by Peter Taylor
At our Adult Learner Program, we have identified that women who have experienced violence need various supports in order to effectively learn upon their reentry to school. Using three broad definitions of violence, I have investigated the impact of violence on low-income women's learning at our literacy program. We have found that if our program supports transformation of the inner and outer sacred space of a woman, then she can gain the qualities she needs to learn throughout her time at our program, but for lifelong learning. "Sacred" in the sense used here denotes something worthy of respect.
This paper documents the curricula, activities, and transformation of the sacred space that our Adult Learner Program has given attention to, especially during the past five years. Our curricula include activities that acknowledge that the essence of a human being is comprised of four inseparable aspects: the mind, body, spirit, and emotions. Using the First Nations' medicine wheel, we have developed lessons that "bring the whole person to learning (Horsman, 2000)." The curricula also focus on empowering learners through cultivating a greater sense of self (understanding the interconnectedness between the four aspects of the person) and developing a sense of place (establishing the self with a supportive community). We explored ways to construct a sacred learning environment for the women in the program. By catering to all the senses in the classroom, we wanted to create an environment, which we felt our learners were worthy to be in. We took on the challenge to transform a sacred space that reflected the value we knew our students possessed.
subject codes.GEN.TCE

Rachael Yoffee
From Failure-Orientation to Mastery-Orientation: A Workshop for Women
1993, May
Directed by
When an outcome is not as expected or desired, some people conceive of it as a failure. But the subjective meaning of a failure can have personal and psychological implications that are deeper than the objective meaning of an unsuccessful outcome. There are people, women more than men, who become discouraged after failing. Giving up on the task and lacking persistence are some of the characteristics of the learned helplessness pattern of behavior that is typical of these people. Psychologists have tried to understand the underlying reasons for the learned helplessness pattern of behavior.
In this thesis I first review some of the theories that try to explain learned helplessness. The cognitive explanation (which focuses on the framework one uses to interpret a situation), the egotism theory (which focuses on the need to protect self-esteem), and some social theories (which focus on situational variables which influence behavior) are presented and discussed. I also examine the possible relations among the theories. Next, I review studies of individual differences in learned helplessness. Studies conducted with young children, older children, and adults have found that older children and adults are more susceptible to learned helplessness than young children. This section of this thesis examines the reasons for these differences. I also review the evidence for differences between women's and men's reactions to failure and success. Studies have indicated that women show more learned helplessness than men. As a woman I am disturbed by this. Therefore, I have attempted in this thesis to understand the underlying reasons for these differences and to find what can be done to change it, at least on the personal level.
The theories and studies mentioned in the sections above support the conclusion that certain patterns of thinking (in which one jumps to an unwarranted negative conclusion from scanty evidence and fails to consider other possible meanings) foster learned helplessness. These patterns of thinking can be affected by one's level of self-esteem, one's intuitive theories about ability, as well as factors in the social situation. This led me to propose a design for a workshop that aims to change that pattern of thinking by making individuals aware of their reaction patterns as well as alternative orientations.
The thesis concludes with a detailed discussion of that workshop and its activities. It shows how the use of critical and creative thinking components and the "Rotating Moderator" method can help one to perceive the outcome more neutrally as "unsuccessful outcome" rather than as "failure". The workshop also tries to change one's attitude from "failure in the performance" toward "mastery of the task". I believe that the ability to see any outcome as a means of learning and growing can lead women to be more optimistic and adaptive in their behavior.
subject codes .GEN.COM

Susan Anne Ripley Young
A Teachers' Guide to Improving Students' Creative Thinking in Mathematics
1995, May
Directed by Judish Collison
A teacher's approach to mathematics instruction greatly influences students' learning. To help children develop positive "mathematical self-esteem", become competent in mathematics, and deal with the importance of mathematics in today's world, I propose infusing more creativity into the teaching and learning of the subject.
The key factor in this approach is self-actualization, or achieving one's potential. It is the fundamental part of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers theories, and makes creativity accessible to everyone. Just as all people have the potential to be creative, everybody has the ability to succeed in mathematics. Neither is restricted to a select group of particularly talented people. Through self-actualization, anyone can enhance her creativity, and by increasing one's creativity, a person can improve her "mathematical self-esteem".
Educators need to take a creative approach to their mathematics teaching, making use of all of their abilities, taking risks, experimenting, and trying new things. Mathematics must be presented as a multi-faceted subject with components and applications for everyone. Teachers need to foster students' discovery of their own mathematical abilities in the context of a safe
classroom atmosphere that encourages risk taking. Pupils should be taught mathematics through their different intelligences to help them realize the various ways of knowing and understanding the subject. Using such instructional methods can assist all students in finding success in mathematics.
The examples in this curriculum development project illustrate such an approach for teachers and include a unit on division, an integrated activity based on a children's story, and an annotated list of children's books containing mathematical concepts. Teachers and students who make use of their creative abilities in mathematics may also see benefits in other areas. Once pupils develop their creative thinking in mathematics and become more confident, they should be encouraged to transfer those skills and attitudes to other contexts. Similarly, teachers should apply the creative methods used in mathematics instruction to the other subjects they teach. Thus, the positive results of such an approach extend beyond the mathematical classroom for both teacher and student.
subject codes .TCE.SCI

Edip Yuksel
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Directed by
subject codes

Cynthia Zafft
Enhancing Thinking Ability in Beginning Nursing Students
1995, September
Directed by
Beginning nursing students find themselves overwhelmed by the vast amount of new information they must learn, particularly in fast-paced, associate degree programs. As students step into their nursing education they often leave behind previous ways of thinking and knowing because there seems to be no suitable location for it. In the process, student thinking becomes impoverished and limited. A focus on thinking -- critical, creative, and metacognitive -- can provide a bridge for appropriate integration of previous knowledge with new learning.
The central concern of this thesis is the development of classroom activities which use common experiences as a base from which to examine and expand thinking. Emphasis is placed on the ways in which previous experience provides important information about new learning. This focus aids in transference of facts into flexible and usable knowledge. It also creates a place where cultural issues which impact nursing, such as gender, can bubble to the surface and be addressed.
Along with specific classroom activities are several design criteria which focus on thinking and guide educators in the development of classroom activities. Blocks to critical and creative thinking are also addressed. And, threaded throughout the work, are a number of "stories" which describe what it is like to be a beginning student nurse.
subject codes .MED

David Zwicker
Transfer of Learning: An Inquiry into the Generalizability of Metacognitive Thinking Strategies
1998, December
Directed by Carol Smith
Transfer of learning, a criteria or outcome of learning, is one of the most important goals of education, and the ultimate aim of teaching. However, over 75 years of cognitive psychology research on transfer produced mostly negative results. I will argue that this research, often based on static models of learning and memory, produced negative results because the experiments failed to take into consideration the dynamic interaction of cognitive, affective, and social variables in the learning environment. Contemporary research and theory has re-framed the transfer problem in terms of a dynamic model of learning which takes into consideration new understandings of how the mind processes information, how affective traits of learners influence cognitive processes, and how social structures and conditioning frame the whole.
This paper will introduce the reader to basic definitions, history, and terms related to transfer, then discuss the cognitive, affective, and social dimensions of transfer, examine in detail the most successful program which has achieved positive transfer results, the Reciprocal Teaching program, and explain how it has achieved success. Finally, this work will suggest guidelines for how future learning designs can promote transfer of learning.
subject codes .LRN