citation

The guiding principle of referencing is that you are trying to be helpful to readers who want to follow up what you are saying.

In text parenthetical citations:

Sociologist of science Taylor (1992) claims that dogs are carnivores. In defense of this position he cites the definition of Haraway (1989, 25), a biologist who defines a dog as "a mammal of the order Carnivora." This taxonomic approach builds on several other works (Taylor 1988; Taylor and Blum 1991) and can be seen in mature form in Taylor, Halfon, and Edwards (1997).


Reference list at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order.

Haraway, D. J. 1989. Teddy bear patriarchy: Taxidermy in the garden of Eden, New York City, 1908-1936. In Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Sciences, 26-58. New York: Routledge.

Taylor, P. J. 1992. Community. In Keywords in Evolutionary Biology, ed. Evelyn F. Keller and Elizabeth Lloyd, 52-60. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Taylor, P. J. 1988. Technocratic optimism, H.T. Odum, and the partial transformation of ecological metaphor after World War II. Journal of the History of Biology 21: 213-244.

Taylor, P. J. and A. S. Blum. 1991. Ecosystems as circuits: Diagrams and the limits of physical analogies. Biology & Philosophy 6: 275-294.

Taylor, P. J. , S. E. Halfon, and P. N. Edwards, eds. 1997. Changing Life: Genomes, Ecologies, Bodies, Commodities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.


For more detail, consult Turabian (1996, 187ff). Sections 11.3-7, 10, 11, 26, 27, 31, 39, 40, 41, and 55 cover most of the cases you would encounter. The RL entry is the one that is used in the Reference List (RL) above and below.

Turabian, K. L. 1996. A Manual For Writers of Term papers, Theses, and Disertations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

References from the web
In-text citation is the same as above. (Record the author or organization if there is no author or Anon if there is neither. Record the date or n.d. if there is no date.)

Reference list citation should include when you viewed the webpage (because the info on webpages changes):

Taylor, P. J. 2002. We know more than we are, at first, prepared to acknowledge: Journeying to develop critical thinking. http://www.faculty.umb.edu/pjt/journey.html (viewed 28 Nov. 2004)


The most important thing is to record the full information NOW for any paper you just might want to refer to. You don't have time to locate the details later.